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High Triglycerides (Holistic)

High Triglycerides (Holistic)

About This Condition

Too many of the fatty compounds known as triglycerides can compromise your health. According to research or other evidence, the following self-care steps may be helpful.
  • Don't forget the fish

    Eat more fatty fish and take a daily fish oil supplement providing 3,000 mg of the triglyceride-lowering omega-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA

  • Get the niacin you need

    Under your doctor’s supervision, take niacin (vitamin B3) in amounts large enough to reduce triglyceride levels

  • Slim down

    Normalize triglyceride levels by losing excess weight through a long-term program of exercise and healthier eating

  • Diet right

    Eat less sugar and other refined carbohydrates, and limit alcohol and caffeine

  • Focus on fitness

    Begin a regular exercise program to lower triglyceride levels

About

About This Condition

Triglycerides (TGs) are a group of fatty compounds that circulate in the bloodstream and are stored in the fat tissue. Individuals who have elevated blood levels of TGs (known as hypertriglyceridemia) appear to be at increased risk of developing heart disease .

People with diabetes often have elevated TG levels. Successfully controlling diabetes will, in some cases, lead to normalization of TG levels.

Symptoms

Very high triglycerides can cause pancreatitis, an enlarged liver and spleen, and fatty deposits in the skin called xanthomas. Otherwise, high triglycerides may not cause symptoms until and unless heart disease or other diseases of blood vessels develop.

Healthy Lifestyle Tips

Exercise lowers TG levels.1 People who have diabetes , heart disease , or are over the age of 40, should talk with a doctor before beginning an exercise program.

Smoking has been linked to elevated TG levels.2 As always, it makes sense for smokers to quit.

Obesity increases TG levels.3 Maintaining ideal body weight helps protect against elevated TG levels. Many doctors encourage people who have elevated TGs and who are overweight to lose the extra weight.

Eating Right

The right diet is the key to managing many diseases and to improving general quality of life. For this condition, scientific research has found benefit in the following healthy eating tips.

Recommendation Why
Choose good fats
Many doctors recommend a diet higher in unsaturated fats, such as olive oil, over a diet high in saturated fat to reduce triglycerides and heart disease risk. In other words, choose fish, soy, and nonfat dairy, and avoid meats and fatty dairy.

The blood level of TGs following a meal may be a more important indicator of coronary heart disease risk than the fasting level.4 , 5 However, a low-fat diet (55% carbohydrates, 23% fats, 22% proteins) that succeeded in normalizing other blood lipids, including fasting TG levels, failed to normalize post-meal TG levels in a group of people with hypertriglyceridemia.6 These results suggest that dietary reduction of fasting TGs, even if the diet controls other blood lipids, may not be enough to provide optimal protection against coronary heart disease. Many doctors recommend a diet low in saturated fat (meaning avoidance of red meat and all dairy except nonfat dairy) to reduce TGs and the risk of heart disease .7

Eat more fish
Triglyceride-lowering omega-3s are found in fatty fish such as herring, mackerel, sardines, anchovies, albacore tuna, and black cod.

Some,8 , 9 but not all,10 studies have found that increasing consumption of fish is associated with a lower risk of heart disease . Significant amounts of TG-lowering omega-3 fatty acids (EPA and DHA ) can be found in the fish oil of salmon, herring, mackerel, sardines, anchovies, albacore tuna, and black cod. Many doctors recommend that people with elevated TGs increase their intake of these fatty fish.

Focus on fiber
Diets high in fiber have reduced triglyceride levels in some studies. Water-soluble fibers, such as those found in fruit, beans, and oats, may be particularly helpful.

Diets high in fiber have reduced TG levels in several clinical trials,11 but have had no effect in other clinical trials.12 Water-soluble fibers, such as pectin found in fruit, guar gum and other gums found in beans, and beta-glucan found in oats , may be particularly helpful in lowering triglycerides.

Don’t drink to excess
While drinking moderate amounts of alcohol does not appear to affect triglyceride, heavy drinking is believed to increase levels.

While consuming moderate amounts of alcohol does not appear to affect TG levels, heavy drinking is believed to be an important cause of hypertriglyceridemia.13 Alcoholics with elevated TG levels should deal with the disease of alcoholism first.

Limit sugar
People with elevated triglycerides should replace sugary foods and beverages with natural, unsweetened options, as refined sugar increases triglyceride levels.

Ingesting refined sugar increases TG levels, as well.14 , 15 People with elevated TGs should therefore reduce their intake of sugar, sweets, and other sugar-containing foods. There is also evidence that ingesting fructose in amounts that are found in a typical Western diet can raise TG levels, although not all studies agree on that point.16 It should be noted that most studies of fructose investigated the refined form, not the fructose that occurs naturally in some fruits.

Try a low-fat, high-complex-carb diet
In one study, a low-fat diet high in unrefined carbohydrates reduced triglycerides.

Consumption of a low-fat, high-carbohydrate diet reduced TGs in one study.17 However, in another study, populations that consumed a low-fat, high-carbohydrate diet had higher TG levels, compared with populations that consumed lower amounts of carbohydrates.18 Suddenly switching to a high-carbohydrate, low-fat diet will generally increase TGs temporarily, but making the switch gradually protects against this short-term problem.19

Cut the caffeine
In a study of heavy caffeine users, changing to decaffeinated coffee and eliminating all other caffeinated products reduced triglyceride levels by 25%.

In a study of heavy caffeine users (individuals who were consuming an average of 560 mg of caffeine per day from coffee and tea), changing to decaffeinated coffee and eliminating all other caffeinated products for two weeks resulted in a statistically significant 25% reduction in TG levels.20

Supplements

What Are Star Ratings?

Our proprietary “Star-Rating” system was developed to help you easily understand the amount of scientific support behind each supplement in relation to a specific health condition. While there is no way to predict whether a vitamin, mineral, or herb will successfully treat or prevent associated health conditions, our unique ratings tell you how well these supplements are understood by some in the medical community, and whether studies have found them to be effective for other people.

For over a decade, our team has combed through thousands of research articles published in reputable journals. To help you make educated decisions, and to better understand controversial or confusing supplements, our medical experts have digested the science into these three easy-to-follow ratings. We hope this provides you with a helpful resource to make informed decisions towards your health and well-being.

3 Stars Reliable and relatively consistent scientific data showing a substantial health benefit.

2 Stars Contradictory, insufficient, or preliminary studies suggesting a health benefit or minimal health benefit.

1 Star For an herb, supported by traditional use but minimal or no scientific evidence. For a supplement, little scientific support.

Supplement Why
3 Stars
Fish Oil
3,000 mg daily omega-3 fatty acids
Learn More

Many double-blind trials have demonstrated that fish oils (also called fish-oil concentrates) containing EPA and DHA (mentioned above) lower TG levels.21 The amount of fish oil used in much of the research was an amount that provided 3,000 mg per day of omega-3 fatty acids. To calculate how much omega-3 fatty acid is contained in a fish oil supplement, add together the amounts of EPA and DHA. For example, a typical 1,000-mg capsule of fish oil provides 180 mg of EPA and 120 mg of DHA (total omega-3 fatty acids equals 300 mg). Ten of these capsules would contain 3,000 mg of omega-3 fatty acids. Other sources of omega-3 fatty acids, such as flaxseed oil , do not lower TGs. While flaxseed oil has other benefits, it should not be used for the purpose of reducing TGs.

Cod liver oil , another source of omega-3 fatty acids, has also been found to lower TGs.22 Cod liver oil is less expensive than the fish oil concentrates discussed previously. However, cod liver oil also contains relatively large amounts of vitamin A and vitamin D ; too much of either can cause side effects. In contrast, fish oil concentrates have little or none of these vitamins. Individuals wishing to use cod liver oil as a substitute for a fish-oil concentrate should consult a doctor.

Omega-3 fatty acids from fish oil and cod liver oil have been reported to affect blood in many other ways that might lower the risk of heart disease .23 However, these supplements sometimes increase LDL cholesterol —the bad form of cholesterol. A doctor can check to see if fish oil has this effect on an individual. Research shows that when 900 mg of garlic extract is added to fish oil, the combination still dramatically lowers TG levels but no longer increases LDL cholesterol.24 Therefore, it appears that taking garlic supplements may be a way to avoid the increase in LDL cholesterol sometimes associated with taking fish oil. People who take fish oil may also need to take vitamin E to prevent the oil from undergoing potentially damaging oxidation in the body.25 It is not known how much vitamin E is needed to prevent such oxidation. The amount required would presumably depend on the amount of fish oil used. In one clinical trial, 300 IU of vitamin E per day prevented oxidation damage in individuals taking 6 grams of fish oil per day.26

3 Stars
Guggul
25 mg guggulsterones three times per day
Learn More

Guggul , a mixture of ketonic steroids from the gum oleoresin of Commiphora mukul, is an approved treatment of hyperlipidemia in India and has been a mainstay of Ayurvedic herbal approaches to preventing atherosclerosis . Clinical trials indicate that guggul is effective in the treatment of high TGs; in one trial, serum TGs fell by 30.3%.27

However, these results have not been confirmed by large, controlled trials. The recommended daily intake of guggul is typically based on the amount of guggulsterones in the extract. The recommended amount of guggulsterones is 25 mg three times per day. Most extracts contain 5–10% guggulsterones. Guggul’s effect on TGs should be monitored for three to four months, and guggul may be taken long term if successful in lowering TGs.

3 Stars
Niacin (Vitamin B3)
500 mg three times per day
Learn More

The niacin form of vitamin B3 is used by doctors to lower cholesterol levels, but niacin also lowers TG levels.28 The amount of niacin needed to achieve worthwhile reductions in cholesterol and TG levels is several grams per day. Such quantities can cause side effects, including potential damage to the liver, and should not be taken without the supervision of a doctor. Some doctors recommend inositol hexaniacinate (a special form of vitamin B3) as an alternative to niacin. A typical amount recommended is 500 mg three times per day.29 , 30 This form of vitamin B3 does not typically cause a skin flush and is said to be safer for the liver than niacin. However, the alleged safety advantage of inositol hexaniacinate needs to be confirmed by additional clinical trials. Moreover, it is not clear whether inositol hexaniacinate is as effective as niacin at lowering cholesterol and TG levels.

3 Stars
Pantothenic Acid
300 mg pantethine three times per day
Learn More

Pantethine is a byproduct of pantothenic acid (vitamin B5). Several clinical trials have shown that 300 mg of pantethine taken three times per day will lower TG levels.31 , 32 , 33 Pantothenic acid, which is found in most B vitamins, does not have this effect.

2 Stars
Asteraceae
15 to 20 drops of tincture twice per day
Learn More

In a double-blind trial, people with moderately high triglycerides took a tincture of Achillea wilhelmsii, an herb used in traditional Persian medicine.34 Participants in the trial used 15–20 drops of the tincture twice daily for six months. At the end of the trial, participants experienced significant reductions in triglycerides compared to those who took placebo. No adverse effects were reported.

2 Stars
Calcium
800 mg daily
Learn More

Caution: Calcium supplements should be avoided by prostate cancer patients.

In a preliminary trial, supplementation with 800 mg of calcium per day for one year resulted in a statistically significant 35% reduction in the average TG level among people with elevated cholesterol and triglycerides.35 However, in another trial, calcium supplementation had no effect on TG levels.36 One of the differences between these two trials was that more people in the former trial had initially elevated TG levels.

2 Stars
Chromium
200 mg daily
Learn More

In a double-blind trial, 30 people with type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes received 200 mcg of chromium per day (as chromium picolinate) for two months and a placebo for an additional two months. The average TG level was significantly lower (by an average of 17.4%) during chromium supplementation than during the placebo period.37Some,38 , 39 but not all, trials40 , 41 support these findings. It is not clear whether chromium supplementation affects TG levels in non-diabetics, but some evidence suggests that it does not.42 , 43 , 44 , 45 , 46

2 Stars
Fenugreek
100 grams seed daily or 25 to 50 grams defatted seed powder daily
Learn More

Fenugreek has been shown to lower total and LDL cholesterol and triglyceride levels in people with high lipid levels in preliminary trials.47 Bread made with 50 grams defatted fenugreek powder was used twice daily in the trial. Similar results have been seen at half that amount in people with diabetes and elevated blood levels of various lipids.48 A small randomized trial found similar results using 100 grams fenugreek seeds daily.49 One small clinical trial found that either 25 grams or 50 grams per day of defatted fenugreek seed powder were effective in reducing triglycerides over a 20-day period.50 Mild diarrhea and gas can accompany the first few days of fenugreek use, though it almost always fades as the person taking it adapts.

2 Stars
Fructo-oligosaccharides
8 to 20 grams daily
Learn More

Several double-blind trials have evaluated the efficacy of fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) or inulin (a related compound) for lowering blood cholesterol and triglyceride levels. These trials have shown that in individuals with elevated total cholesterol or triglyceride levels, including people with type 2 diabetes, FOS or inulin (in amounts ranging from 8 to 20 grams daily) produced significant reductions in triglyceride levels; however, the effect on cholesterol levels was inconsistent.51 , 52 , 53 , 54 In people with normal or low cholesterol or triglyceride levels, FOS or inulin produced little effect.55 , 56 , 57

2 Stars
Garlic
600 to 900 mg daily of a concentrate standardized for 5,000 to 6,000 mcg of allicin
Learn More

Reports on many clinical trials of garlic performed until 1998 suggested that triglycerides were lowered by an average of 8–27% and cholesterol by 9–12% over a one- to four-month period.58 , 59 , 60 Most of these trials used 600–900 mg per day of a garlic supplement standardized to alliin content and allicin potential. More recently, however, three double-blind clinical trials have found garlic to have minimal success in lowering triglycerides and cholesterol.61 , 62 , 63 One negative trial has been criticized for using a steam distilled garlic “oil” that has no track record for this purpose,64 while the others used the same standardized garlic products as the previous positive clinical trials. Based on these findings, the use of garlic should not be considered a primary approach to lowering high triglycerides and cholesterol.65

Odor-controlled, enteric-coated garlic tablets standardized for allicin content can be taken in the amount of 900 mg daily (providing 5,000–6,000 mcg of allicin), divided into two or three daily portions.

2 Stars
Inositol Hexaniacinate (Vitamin B3)
500 mg three times per day
Learn More
The niacin form of vitamin B3 is used by doctors to lower cholesterol levels, but niacin also lowers TG levels. The amount of niacin needed to achieve worthwhile reductions in cholesterol and TG levels66 is several grams per day. Such quantities can cause side effects, including potential damage to the liver, and should not be taken without supervision of a doctor. Some doctors recommend inositol hexaniacinate (a special for of vitamin B3) as an alternative to niacin. A typical amount recommended is 500 mg three times per day.67 , 68 This form of vitamin B3 does not typically cause a skin flush and is said to be safer for the liver than niacin. However, the alleged safety advantage of inositol hexaniacinate needs to be confirmed by addition clinical trials. Moreover, it is not clear whether inositol hexaniacinate is as effective as niacin at lowering cholesterol and TG levels.
2 Stars
Krill Oil
2 to 3 grams per day
Learn More
In a double-blind study of people with elevated blood levels of cholesterol and triglycerides, supplementation with 2 to 3 grams per day of krill oil from Antarctic krill (a zooplankton crustacean) for three months decreased levels of triglycerides. However, 1 to 1.5 grams per day was not effective. Krill oil was significantly more effective than either a placebo or small amounts of regular fish oil containing 900 mg per day of omega-3 fatty acids.69
2 Stars
L-Carnitine
1 to 3 grams daily
Learn More

L-carnitine is another supplement that has lowered TGs in several clinical trials.70 , 71 However, the effect of carnitine is unpredictable, and some individuals have experienced an increase in triglyceride levels after receiving this supplement.72 Some doctors recommend 1–3 grams of carnitine per day, in the form known as L-carnitine.

2 Stars
Policosanol
10 to 20 mg daily
Learn More

The effect of policosanol on serum triglycerides has been inconsistent, ranging from no effect up to as much as a 19% reduction.73 , 74 , 75 , 76 , 77 , 78 , 79 , 80 , 81 , 82 Several controlled studies have compared policosanol with cholesterol-lowering medications, such as statins, and have found policosanol similarly effective.83 , 84 , 85 , 86 , 87 , 88 , 89 Policosanol extracted from beeswax or other sources differs from the sugar-cane-derived preparation in the proportions of long-chain alcohols, and whether these types of policosanol are as effective as sugar-cane-derived policosanol is unknown.

2 Stars
Psyllium
15 grams daily
Learn More

Psyllium seeds and husks have shown a modest ability to lower blood triglyceride levels in some,90 , 91 but not all,92 clinical trials. Further research is needed to assess the effect of psyllium on triglyceride levels more closely, as much of the study so far has focused on lowering cholesterol levels.

2 Stars
Red Yeast Rice
13.5 mg total monacolins daily
Learn More

Although primarily used to lower high serum cholesterol, red yeast rice extract, high in monacolins, has been found to significantly lower serum triglyceride levels.93 People in the trial took 1.2 grams (approximately 13.5 mg total monacolins) of a concentrated red yeast rice extract per day for two months. The sale of Cholestin has been banned in the United States, as a result of a lawsuit alleging patent infringement. Other red yeast rice products currently on the market differ from Cholestin in their chemical makeup. None contain the full complement of 10 monacolin compounds that are present in Cholestin, and some contain a potentially toxic fermentation product called citrinin. 94 Until further information is available, red yeast rice products other than Cholestin cannot be recommended.

1 Star
Creatine Monohydrate
Refer to label instructions
Learn More

A double-blind trial found that a supplement of 5 grams of creatine plus 1 gram of glucose taken four times per day for five days followed by twice a day for 51 days significantly lowered serum total triglycerides in both men and women.95However, another double-blind trial found no change in any of these blood levels in trained athletes using creatine during a 12-week strength training program.96 Creatine supplementation in this negative trial was lower—only five grams per day was taken for the last 11 weeks of the study.

1 Star
Green Tea
Refer to label instructions
Learn More

Intake of three cups or less of green tea daily has been shown not to affect blood triglyceride levels.97 Intake of four or more cups per day has been correlated with lower triglyceride levels.98 Overall, the evidence is unclear on how much of an effect high levels of intake of green tea has on triglyceride levels.

1 Star
Maitake
Refer to label instructions
Learn More

Animal studies suggest the mushroom maitake may lower fat levels in the blood.99 However, this research is still preliminary and requires confirmation by controlled human trials.

References

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24. Adler AJ, Holub BJ. Effect of garlic and fish-oil supplementation on serum lipid and lipoprotein concentrations in hypercholesterolemic men. Am J Clin Nutr 1997;65:445–50.

25. Haglund O, Luostarinen R, Wallin R, et al. The effects of fish oil on triglycerides, cholesterol, fibrinogen and malondialdehyde in humans supplemented with vitamin E. J Nutr 1991;121:165–9.

26. Oostenbrug GS, Mensink RP, Hornstra G. A moderate in vivo vitamin E supplement counteracts the fish-oil-induced increase in in vitro oxidation of human low-density lipoproteins. Am J Clin Nutr 1993;57:827S.

27. Agarwal RC, Singh SP, Saran RK, et al. Clinical trial of gugulipid new hypolipidemic agent of plant origin in primary hyperlipidemia. Indian J Med Res 1986;84:626–34.

28. Brown WV. Niacin for lipid disorders. Postgrad Med 1995;98:183–93 [review].

29. Head KA. Inositol hexaniacinate: a safer alternative to niacin. Altern Med Rev 1996;1:176–84 [review].

30. Murray M. Lipid-lowering drugs vs. inositol hexaniacinate. Am J Natural Med 1995;2(8):9–12 [review].

31. Arsenio L, Bodria P, Magnati G, et al. Effectiveness of long-term treatment with pantethine in patients with dyslipidemia. Clin Ther 1986;8:537–45.

32. Avogaro P, Bon GB, Fusello M. Effect of pantethine on lipids, lipoproteins and apolipoproteins in man. Curr Ther Res 1983;33:488–93.

33. Maggi GC, Donati C, Criscuoli G. Pantethine: a physiological lipomodulating agent, in the treatment of hyperlipidemias. Curr Ther Res 1982;32:380–6.

34. Asgary S, Naderi GH, Sarrafzadegan N, et al. Antihypertensive and antihyperlipidemic effects of Achillea wilhelmsii. Drugs Exp Clin Res 2000;26:89–93.

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37. Lee NA, Reasner CA. Beneficial effect of chromium supplementation on serum triglyceride levels in NIDDM. Diabetes Care 1994;17:1449–52.

38. Abraham AS, Brooks BA, Eylath U. The effects of chromium supplementation on serum glucose and lipids in patients with and without non-insulin-dependent diabetes. Metabolism 1992;41:768–71.

39. Thomas VL, Gropper SS. Effect of chromium nicotinic acid supplementation on selected cardiovascular disease risk factors. Biol Trace Elem Res 1996;55:297–305.

40. Rabinowitz MB, Gonick HC, Levin SR, Davidson MB. Effects of chromium and yeast supplements on carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in diabetic men. Diabetes Care 1983;6:319–27.

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43. Offenbacher EG, Rinko CJ, Pi-Sunyer FX. The effects of inorganic chromium and brewer’s yeast on glucose tolerance, plasma lipids, and plasma chromium in elderly subjects. Am J Clin Nutr 1985;42:454–61.

44. Roeback JR Jr, Hla KM, Chambless LE, Fletcher RH. Effects of chromium supplementation on serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in men taking beta-blockers. A randomized, controlled trial. Ann Intern Med 1991;115:917–24.

45. Wilson BE, Gondy A. Effects of chromium supplementation on fasting insulin levels and lipid parameters in healthy, non-obese young subjects. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 1995;28:179–84.

46. Thomas VL, Gropper SS. Effect of chromium nicotinic acid supplementation on selected cardiovascular disease risk factors. Biol Trace Elem Res 1996;55:297–305.

47. Sharma RD, Raghuram TC, Dayasagar Rao V. Hypolipidaemic effect of fenugreek seeds. A clinical study. Phyother Res 1991;5:145–7.

48. Sharma RD, Sarkar DK, Hazra B, et al. Hypolipidaemic effect of fenugreek seeds: A chronic study in non-insulin dependent diabetic patients. Phytother Res 1996;10:332–4.

49. Sharma RD, Raghuram TC, Rao NS. Effect of fenugreek seeds on blood glucose and serum lipids in type I diabetes. Eur J Clin Nutr 1990;44:301–6.

50. Prasanna M. Hypolipidemic effect of fenugreek: A clinical study. Indian J Pharmacol 2000;32:34–6.

51. Yamashita K, Kawai K, Itakura M. Effect of fructo-oligosaccharides on blood glucose and serum lipids in diabetic subjects. Nutr Res 1984;4:961–6.

52. Jackson KG, Taylor GRJ, Clohessy AM, Williams CM. The effect of the daily intake of inulin on fasting lipid, insulin and glucose concentrations in middle-aged men and women. Br J Nutr 1999;82:23–30.

53. Roberfroid M. Dietary fibre, inulin and oligofructose. A review comparing their physiological effects. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 1993;33:103–48 [review].

54. Davidson MH, Synecki C, Maki KC, Drennen KB. Effects of dietary inulin in serum lipids in men and women with hypercholesterolaemia. Nutr Res 1998;3:503–17.

55. Luo J, Rizkalla SW, Alamowitch C, et al. Chronic consumption of short-chain fructooligosaccharides by health subjects decreased basal hepatic glucose production but had no effect on insulin-stimulated glucose metabolism. Am J Clin Nutr 1996;63:939–45.

56. Pedersen A, Sandstrom B, van Amelsvoort JMM. The effect of ingestion of inulin on blood lipids and gastrointestinal symptoms in healthy females. 1997;78:215–22.

57. van Dokkum W, Wezendonk B, Srikumar TS, van den Heuvel EG. Effect of nondigestible oligosaccharides on large-bowel functions, blood lipid concentrations and glucose absorption in young healthy male subjects. Eur J Clin Nutr 1999;53:1–7.

58. Warshafsky S, Kamer R, Sivak S. Effect of garlic on total serum cholesterol: A meta-analysis. Ann Int Med 1993;119(7)599–605.

59. Silagy C, Neil A. Garlic as a lipid-lowering agent—a meta-analysis. J R Coll Phys London 1994;28(1):39–45.

60. Neil HAW, Silagy CA, Lancaster T, et al. Garlic powder in the treatment of moderate hyperlipidaemia: A controlled trial and a meta-analysis. J R Coll Phys 1996;30:329–34.

61. McCrindle BW, Helden E, Conner WT. Garlic extract therapy in children with hypercholesterolemia. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 1998;152:1089–94.

62. Isaacsohn JL, Moser M, Stein EA, et al. Garlic powder and plasma lipids and lipoproteins. Arch Intern Med 1998;158:1189–94.

63. Berthold HK, Sudhop T, von Bergmann K. Effect of a garlic oil preparation on serum lipoproteins and cholesterol metabolism. JAMA 1998;279:1900–2.

64. Lawson L. Garlic oil for hypercholesterolemia—negative results. Quart Rev Natural Med Fall 1998;185–6.

65. Garlic powder for hyperlipidemia—analysis of recent negative results. Quart Rev Natural Med Fall 1998;187–9.

66. Brown WV. Niacin for lipid disorders. Postgrad Med 1995;98:183–93 [review].

67. Head KA. Inositol hexaniacinate: a safer alternative to niacin. Altern Med Rev 1996;1:176–84 [review].

68. Murray M. Lipid-lowering drugs vs. inositol hexaniacinate. Am J Natural Med 1995;2(8):9–12 [review].

69. Bunea R, El Farrah K, Deutsch L. Evaluation of the effects of Neptune Krill Oil on the clinical course of hyperlipidemia. Altern Med Rev 2004;9:420–28.

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