Complementary Medicine - Cam
About This Condition
Beat hypertension—Lower your blood pressure with simple lifestyle changes to protect yourself from this hidden health problem. According to research or other evidence, the following self-care steps may be helpful.
These recommendations are not comprehensive and are not intended to replace the advice of your doctor or pharmacist. Continue reading for more in-depth, fully referenced information.
These recommendations are not comprehensive and are not intended to replace the advice of your doctor or pharmacist. Continue reading for more in-depth, fully referenced information.
About This Condition
Approximately 90% of people with high blood pressure have “essential” or “idiopathic” hypertension, for which the cause is poorly understood. The terms “hypertension” and “high blood pressure” as used here refer only to this most common form and not to pregnancy-induced hypertension or hypertension clearly linked to a known cause, such as Cushing’s syndrome, pheochromocytoma, or kidney disease. Hypertension must always be evaluated by a healthcare professional. Extremely high blood pressure (malignant hypertension) or rapidly worsening hypertension (accelerated hypertension) almost always requires treatment with conventional medicine. People with mild to moderate high blood pressure should work with a doctor before attempting to use the information contained here, as blood pressure requires monitoring and in some cases the use of blood pressure-lowering drugs.
As with conventional drugs, the use of natural substances sometimes controls blood pressure if taken consistently but does not lead to a cure for high blood pressure. Thus, someone whose blood pressure is successfully reduced by weight loss , avoidance of salt, and increased intake of fruits and vegetables would need to maintain these changes permanently in order to retain control of blood pressure. Left untreated, hypertension significantly increases the risk of stroke and heart disease .
Essential hypertension is usually without symptoms until complications develop. The symptoms of complications depend on the organs involved.
Healthy Lifestyle Tips
Smoking is particularly injurious for people with hypertension.1 The combination of hypertension and smoking greatly increases the risk of heart disease –related sickness and death. All people with high blood pressure need to quit smoking.
Consumption of more than about three alcoholic beverages per day appears to increase blood pressure.2 Whether one or two drinks per day meaningfully increases blood pressure remains unclear.
Daily exercise can lower blood pressure significantly.3 A 12-week program of Chinese T’ai Chi was reported to be almost as effective as aerobic exercise in lowering blood pressure.4 Progressive resistance exercise (e.g., weight lifting) also appears to help reduce blood pressure.5 At the same time, blood pressure has been known to increase significantly during the act of lifting heavy weights; for this reason, people with sharply elevated blood pressure, especially those with cardiovascular disease, should approach heavy strenuous resistance exercise with caution. In general, people over 40 years of age should consult with their doctors before starting any exercise regimen.
Most people with high blood pressure are overweight. Weight loss lowers blood pressure significantly in those who are both overweight and hypertensive.6 In fact, reducing body weight by as little as ten pounds can lead to a significant reduction in blood pressure.7 Weight loss appears to have a stronger blood pressure-lowering effect than dietary salt restriction.8
A specific chiropractic adjustment has been shown to produce a sustained reduction in blood pressure that was equivalent to that produced by two blood pressure-lowering medications.9
Anxiety in men (but not women) has been linked to development of hypertension.10 Several research groups have also shown a relationship between job strain and high blood pressure in men.11 , 12 , 13 Some researchers have tied blood pressure specifically to suppressed aggression.14
Although some kind of relationship between stress and high blood pressure appears to exist, the effects of treatment for stress remain controversial. An analysis of 26 trials reported that reductions in blood pressure caused by biofeedback or meditation were no greater than those seen with placebo.15 Though some stress management interventions have not been helpful in reducing blood pressure,16 , 17 those trials that have reported promising effects have used combinations of yoga , biofeedback, and/or meditation.18 , 19 , 20 Some doctors continue to recommend a variety of stress-reducing measures, sometimes tailoring them to the needs and preferences of the person seeking help.
Preliminary laboratory studies in animals21 and humans22 , 23 , 24 suggest that acupuncture may help regulate blood pressure. Most,25 , 26 , 27 , 28 , 29 , 30 but not all,31 preliminary trials also suggest that acupuncture may be an effective way to lower blood pressure. Whether blood pressure goes back up after acupuncture is discontinued remains an unsettled question.
Auricular (ear) acupressure has been reported to be an effective treatment for hypertension,32 , 33 , 34 though in one case the improvement was not significantly better than use of traditional herbal medicines.35
Spinal manipulation may lower blood pressure (at least temporarily) in healthy people, according to most preliminary36 , 37 , 38 and controlled39 trials. However, some research suggests the effect is no better than the blood pressure-lowering effect of sham (“fake”) manipulation.40 In hypertensive people, temporary decreases in blood pressure have also been reported after spinal manipulation.41 , 42 , 43 However, most,44 , 45 , 46 but not all,47 trials suggest that manipulation produces only short-term decreases in blood pressure in hypertensive people.
The right diet is the key to managing many diseases and to improving general quality of life. For this condition, scientific research has found benefit in the following healthy eating tips.
What Are Star Ratings?
Our proprietary “Star-Rating” system was developed to help you easily understand the amount of scientific support behind each supplement in relation to a specific health condition. While there is no way to predict whether a vitamin, mineral, or herb will successfully treat or prevent associated health conditions, our unique ratings tell you how well these supplements are understood by some in the medical community, and whether studies have found them to be effective for other people.
For over a decade, our team has combed through thousands of research articles published in reputable journals. To help you make educated decisions, and to better understand controversial or confusing supplements, our medical experts have digested the science into these three easy-to-follow ratings. We hope this provides you with a helpful resource to make informed decisions towards your health and well-being.
3 Stars Reliable and relatively consistent scientific data showing a substantial health benefit.
2 Stars Contradictory, insufficient, or preliminary studies suggesting a health benefit or minimal health benefit.
1 Star For an herb, supported by traditional use but minimal or no scientific evidence. For a supplement, little scientific support.
1. Narkiewicz K, Maraglino G, Biasion T, et al. Interactive effect of cigarettes and coffee on daytime systolic blood pressure in patients with mild essential hypertension. J Hypertens 1995;13:965–70.
2. Keil U, Liese A, Filipiak B, et al. Alcohol, blood pressure and hypertension. Novartis Round Symp 1998;216:125–44 [review].
3. Kukkonen K, Rauramaa R, Voutilainene E, Lansimies E. Physical training of middle-aged men with borderline hypertension. Ann Clin Res 1982;14(Suppl 34):139–45.
4. Young DR, Appel LG, Jee SH, Miller ER III. The effect of aerobic exercise and T’ai Chi on blood pressure in older people: results of a randomized trial. J Am Geriatr Soc 1999;47:277–84.
5. Kelley GA, Kelley KS. Progressive resistance exercise and resting blood pressure. A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Hypertension 2000;35:838–43.
6. Alderman MH. Nonpharmacologic approaches to the treatment of hypertension. Lancet 1994;334:307–11 [review].
7. Stevens VJ, Obarzanek E, Cook NR, et al. Long-term weight loss and changes in blood pressure: results of the Trials of Hypertension Prevention, Phase II. Ann Intern Med 2001;134:1–11.
8. He J, Whelton PK, Appel LJ, et al. Long-term effects of weight loss and dietary sodium reduction on incidence of hypertension. Hypertension 2000;35:544–9.
9. G Bakris, M Dickholtz, P M Meyer, et al. Journal of Human Hypertension 21, 347-52; doi:10.1038/sj.jhh.1002133
10. Markovitz JH, Matthews KA, Kannel WB, et al. Psychological predictors of hypertension in the Framingham Study. Is there tension in hypertension?JAMA 1993;270:2439–43.
11. Schnall PL, Schwartz JE, Landesbergis PA, et al. Relation between job strain, alcohol, and ambulatory blood pressure. Hypertension 1992;19:488–94.
12. Matthews KA, Cottington EM, Talbott E, et al. Stressful work conditions and diastolic blood pressure among blue collar factory workers. Am J Epidemiol 1987;126:280–91.
13. Pickering TG. Does psychological stress contribute to the development of hypertension and coronary heart disease? Eur J Clin Pharmacol 1990;39(Suppl 1):S1–S7.
14. Perini C, Müller FB, Bühler FR. Suppressed aggression accelerates early development of essential hypertension. J Hypertens 1991;9:499–503.
15. Eisenberg DM, Delbanco TL, Berkey CS, et al. Cognitive behavioral techniques for hypertension: are they effective? Ann Intern Med 1993;118:964–72.
16. Irvine MJ, Logan AG. Relaxation behavior therapy as sole treatment for mild hypertension. Psychosomatic Med 1991;53:587–97.
17. Johnston DW, Gold A, Kentish J, et al. Effect of stress management on blood pressure in mild primary hypertension. BMJ 1993;306:963–6.
18. Patel CH. Yoga and bio-feedback in the management of hypertension. Lancet 1973;2:1973–5.
19. Schneider RH, Staggers F, Alexander C, et al. A randomized controlled trial of stress reduction for hypertension in older African Americans. Hypertension 1995;26:820–9.
20. Patel C, Marmot MG, Terry DJ, et al. Trial of relaxation in reducing coronary risk: four year follow up. BMJ 1985;290:1103–6.
21. Lee HS, Kim JY. Effects of acupuncture on blood pressure and plasma renin activity in two-kidney one clip goldblatt hypertensive rats. Am J Chin Med 1994;22:215–9.
22. Chiu YJ, Chi A, Reid IA. Cardiovascular and endocrine effects of acupuncture in hypertensive patients. Clin Exper Hypertens 1997;19:1047–63.
23. Peng L, Feng-yen S, An-zhong Z. The effect of acupuncture on blood pressure: the interrelation of sympathetic activity and endogenous opioid peptides. Acupunct Electrother Res 1983;8:45–56.
24. Zhou Y, Wang Y, Fang Z, et al. Influence of acupuncture on blood pressure, contents of NE, DA and 5-HT of SHR and the interrelation between blood pressure and whole blood viscosity. Chen Tzu Yen Chiu 1995;20:55–61 [in Chinese].
25. Radzievsky SA, Lebedeva OD, Fisenko LA, Majskaja SA. Function of myocardial contraction and relaxation in essential hypertension in dynamics of acupuncture therapy. Am J Chin Med 1989;17:111–7.
26. Williams T, Mueller K, Cornwall MW. Effect of acupuncture-point stimulation on diastolic blood pressure in hypertensive subjects: a preliminary study. Phys Ther 1991;71:523–9.
27. Weihai Y, Hongxu L. Clinical observation on the immediate hypotensive effect of zanzhu point. J Tradit Chin Med 1996;16:273–4.
28. Utsunomiya N, Shigematsu Y, Ikeda K, et al. Fall in high blood pressure after applying acupuncture to SHR. Jpn Heart J 1978;19:594.
29. Yiping Z, Qiong C, Zhengming H, Yinong C. Experimental research on treatment of hypertension with acupuncture. J Tradit Chin Med 1993;13:277–80.
30. Tam K-C, Yiu H-H. The effect of acupuncture on essential hypertension. Am J Chin Med 1975;3:369–75.
31. Kraft K, Coulon S. Effect of a standardized acupuncture treatment on complains, blood pressure and serum lipids of hypertensive, postmenopausal women. A randomized, controlled clinical study. Forsch Komplementarmed 1999;6:74–9 [in German].
32. Rongxing Z, Yanhua Z, Lu Y. Hypotensive effect of ototherapy in relation to symptomatic and dispositional types of patients. J Tradit Chin Med 1992;12:124–8.
33. Kangmei C, Shulian Z, Ying Z. Clinical application of traditional auriculoacupoint therapy (continued). J Tradit Chin Med 1993;13:152–4.
34. Rongxing Z, Yanhua Z, Jialiang W, et al. Anti-hypertensive effect of auriculo-acupoint pressing therapy—clinical analysis of 274 cases. J Tradit Chin Med 1991;11:189–92.
35. Peng Y, Fenglan L, Xin W. Treatment of essential hypertension with auriculopressure. J Tradit Chin Med 1991;1117–21.
36. Tran T, Kirby J. Effects of upper cervical adjustments upon the normal physiology of the heart. ACA J Chiro 1977;XI:S58–62.
37. McGuiness J, Vicenzino B, Wright A. The influence of a cervical mobilization technique on respiratory and cardiovascular function. Manual Therapy 1997;(2):216–20.
38. Vicenzino B, Cartwright T, Collins D. Cardiovascular and respiratory changes produced by lateral glide mobilization of the cervical spine Manual Therapy 1998;3(2):67–71.
39. Dulgar G, Hill D, Sirucek A, et al. Evidence for possible anti-hypertensive effect of basic technique apex contact adjusting. J Chiro 1980;14:S97–S102.
40. Nansel D, Jansen R, Cremata E, et al. Effects of cervical adjustments on lateral-flexion passive end-range asymmetry and on blood pressure, heart rate and plasma catecholamine levels. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 1991;14:450–6.
41. Fichera AP, Celander DR. Effect of osteopathic manipulative therapy on autonomic tone as evidenced by blood pressure change and activity of the fibrinolytic system. J Am Osteopath Assoc 1969;68:1036–8.
42. McKnight M, DeBoer KD. Preliminary study of blood pressure changes in normotensive patients under chiropractic care. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 1988;11:261–6.
43. Yates RG, Lamping DL, Nancy LA, Wright C. Effects of chiropractic treatment on blood pressure and anxiety: a randomized, controlled trial. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 1988;11:484–8.
44. Morgan JP, Dickey JL, Hunt HH, Hudgins PM. A controlled trial of spinal manipulation in the management of hypertension. J Am Osteopath Assoc 1985;85(5):308–12.
45. Mannino J. The application of neurologic reflexes to the treatment of hypertension. J Am Osteopath Assoc 1979;79:225–31.
46. Wagnon RJ, Sandefur RM, Ratliff CR. Serum aldosterone changes after specific chiropractic manipulation. Am J Chiropr Med 1988;1(2):66–70.
47. Goodman R. Hypertension and the atlas subluxation complex. Chiropractic: J Chiropractic Res Clin Invest 1992;8(2)30–2.
48. Rossner S, Andersson IL, Ryttig K. Effects of a dietary fibre supplement to a weight reduction programme on blood pressure. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Acta Med Scand 1988;223:353–7.
49. Eliasson K, Ryttig KR, Hylander B, Rossner S. A dietary fibre supplement in the treatment of mild hypertension. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. J Hypertens 1992;10:195–9.
50. Schlamowitz P, Halberg T, Warnoe O, et al. Treatment of mild to moderate hypertension with dietary fibre. Lancet 1987;2:622–3.
51. Fehily AM, Burr ML, Butland BK, Eastham RD. A randomised controlled trial to investigate the effect of a high fibre diet on blood pressure and plasma fibrinogen. J Epidemiol Community Health 1986;40:334–7.
52. Swain JF, Rouse IL, Curley CB, Sacks FM. Comparison of the effects of oat bran and low-fiber wheat on serum lipoprotein levels and blood pressure. N Engl J Med 1990;322:147–52.
53. Soriguer F, Rojo-Martinez G, Dobarganes MC, et al. Hypertension is related to the degradation of dietary frying oils. Am J Clin Nutr 2003;78:1092–7.
54. Zein M, Areas JL, Breuss GH. Effects of excess sucrose ingestion on the lifespan of SHR. J Am Coll Nutr 1989;8:435 [abstract #42].
55. Rebello T, Hodges RE, Smith JL. Short-term effects of various sugars on antinatriuresis and blood pressure changes in normotensive young men. Am J Clin Nutr 1983;38(1):84–94.
56. Preuss HG, Fournier RD. Effects of sucrose ingestion on blood pressure. Life Sci 1982;30:879–86.
57. Margetts BM, Beilin LJ, Vandongen R, Armstrong BK. Vegetarian diet in mild hypertension: a randomised controlled trial. BMJ 1986;293:1468–71.
58. Cappuccio FP, MacGregor GA. Does potassium supplementation lower blood pressure? A meta-analysis of published trials. J Hypertens 1991;9:465–73.
59. Appel LJ, Moore TJ, Boarzanek E, et al. A clinical trial of the effects of dietary patterns on blood pressure. N Engl J Med 1997;336:1117–24.
60. Svetkey LP, Simons-Morton D, Vollmer WM, et al. Effects of dietary patterns on blood pressure: a subgroup analysis of the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) randomized clinical trial. Arch Intern Med 1999;159:285–93.
61. Sachs FM, Svetkey LP, Vollmer WM, et al. Effects on Blood Pressure of Reduced Dietary Sodium and the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet. N Engl J Med 2001;344:3–10.
62. Engelhard YN, Gazer B, Paran E. Natural antioxidants from tomato extract reduce blood pressure in patients with grade-1 hypertension: a double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study. Am Heart J 2006;151:100.
63. Rachima-Maoz C, Peleg E, Rosenthal T. The effect of caffeine on ambulatory blood pressure in hypertensive patients. Am J Hypertens 1998;11:1426–32.
64. Hodgoson JM, Buddey IB, Burke V, et al. Effects on blood pressure of drinking green and black tea. J Hypertens 1999;17:457–63.
65. Jee SH, He J, Whelton PK, et al. The effect of chronic coffee drinking on blood pressure. A meta-analysis of controlled clinical trials. Hypertension 1999;33:647–52.
66. Wakabayashi K, Kono S, Shinchi K, et al. Habitual coffee consumption and blood pressure: a study of self-defense officials in Japan. Eur J Epidemiol 1998;14:669–73.
67. Page LB, Damon A, Moellering RC Jr. Antecedents of cardiovascular disease in six Solomon Islands Societies. Circulation 1974;44:1132–46.
68. Stamler J, Rose G, Elliott P, et al. Findings of the international cooperative INTERSALT study. Hypertension 1991;17(1 Suppl):I9–15.
69. MacGregor GA, Markandu ND, Sagnella GA, et al. Double-blind study of three sodium intakes and long-term effects of sodium restriction in essential hypertension. Lancet 1989;2:1244–7.
70. Cutler JA, Follmann D, Allender PS. Randomized trials of sodium reduction: an overview. Am J Clin Nutr 1997;65(Suppl):643S–51S.
71. Cutler JA, Follmann D, Allender PS. Randomized trials of sodium reduction: an overview. Am J Clin Nutr 1997;65(Suppl):643S–51S.
72. Egan BM, Stepniakowski KT. Adverse effects of short-term, very-low-salt diets in subjects with risk-factor clustering. Am J Clin Nutr 1997;65(Suppl):671S–7S.
73. Grant ECG. Food Allergies and migraine. Lancet 1979;1:966–9.
74. Folkers K, Drzewoski J, Richardson PC, et al. Bioenergetics in clinical medicine. XVI. Reduction of hypertension in patients by therapy with coenzyme Q10. Res Commun Chem Pathol Pharmacol 1981;31:129–40.
75. Langsjoen P, Langsjoen P, Willis R, Folkers K. Treatment of essential hypertension with coenzyme Q10. Mol Aspects Med 1994;15 Suppl:s265–72.
76. Digiesi V, Cantini F, Oradei A, et al. Coenzyme Q10 in essential hypertension. Molec Aspects Med 1994;15 Suppl:s257–63.
77. Digiesi V, Cantini F, Brodbeck B. Effect of coenzyme Q10 on essential arterial hypertension. Curr Ther Res 1990;47:841–5.
78. Singh RB, Niaz MA, Rastogi SS, et al. Effect of hydrosoluble coenzyme Q10 on blood pressures and insulin resistance in hypertensive patients with coronary artery disease. J Hum Hypertens 1999;13:203–8.
79. Morris MC, Sacks F, Rosner B. Does fish oil lower blood pressure? A meta-analysis of controlled trials. Circulation 1993;88:523–33.
80. Mori TA, Bao DQ, Burke V, et al. Docosahexaenoic acid but not eicosapentaenoic acid lowers ambulatory blood pressure and heart rate in humans. Hypertension 1999;34:253–60.
81. Noordzij M, Uiterwaal CS, Arends LR, et al. Blood pressure response to chronic intake of coffee and caffeine: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. J Hypertens 2005;23:921-8 [review].
82. Noordzij M, Uiterwaal CS, Arends LR, et al. Blood pressure response to chronic intake of coffee and caffeine: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. J Hypertens 2005;23:921-8 [review].
83. Yamaguchi T, Chikama A, Mori K, et al. Hydroxyhydroquinone-free coffee: a double-blind, randomized controlled dose-response study of blood pressure. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 2008;18:408-14.
84. Kozuma K, Tsuchiya S, Kohori J, et al. Antihypertensive effect of green coffee bean extract on mildly hypertensive subjects. Hypertens Res 2005;28:711-8.
85. Watanabe T, Arai Y, Mitsui Y, et al. The blood pressure-lowering effect and safety of chlorogenic acid from green coffee bean extract in essential hypertension. Clin Exp Hypertens 2006;28:439-49.
86. Ochiai R, Jokura H, Suzuki A, et al. Green coffee bean extract improves human vasoreactivity. Hypertens Res 2004;27:731-7.
87. Hosseini, S, Lee, J, Sepulveda RT, Fagan T, et al. A randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled, prospective 16 week crossover study to determine the role of Pycnogenol(R) in modifying blood pressure in mildly hypertensive patients. Nutr.Res 2001;21:67-76.
88. Liu X, Wei J, Tan F, et al.. Pycnogenol, French maritime pine bark extract, improves endothelial function of hypertensive patients. Life Sci 2004;74:855-62
89. Cesarone MR, Belcaro G, Stuard S, et al. Kidney flow and function in hypertension: protective effects of pycnogenol in hypertensive participants--a controlled study. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol Ther 2010;15:41-6.
90. Washburn S, Burke GL, Morgan T, Anthony M. Effect of soy protein supplementation on serum lipoproteins, blood pressure, and menopausal symptoms in perimenopausal women. Menopause1999;6:7–13.
91. Rivas M, Garay RP, Escanero JF, et al. Soy milk lowers blood pressure in men and women with mild to moderate essential hypertension. J Nutr 2002;132:1900–2.
92. Burke V, Hodgson JM, Beilin LJ, et al. Dietary protein and soluble fiber reduce ambulatory blood pressure in treated hypertensives. Hypertension2001;38:821–6.
93. He J, Gu D, Wu X, et al. Effect of soybean protein on blood pressure: a randomized, controlled trial. Ann Intern Med 2005;143:1–9.
94. Welty FK, Lee KS, Lew NS, Zhou JR. Effect of soy nuts on blood pressure and lipid levels in hypertensive, prehypertensive, and normotensive postmenopausal women. Arch Intern Med 2007;167:1060–7.
95. Asgary S, Naderi GH, Sarrafzadegan N, et al. Antihypertensive and antihyperlipidemic effects of Achillea wilhelmsii. Drugs Exp Clin Res 2000;26:89–93.
96. Griffith LE, Guyatt GH, Cook RJ, et al. The influence of dietary and nondietary calcium supplementation on blood pressure. An updated metaanalysis of randomized controlled trials. Am J Hypertens 1999;12:84–92.
97. Morand C, Dubray C, Milenkovic D, et al. Hesperidin contributes to the vascular protective effects of orange juice: a randomized crossover study in healthy volunteers. Am J Clin Nutr 2011;93:73–80.
98. Silagy C, Neil AW. A meta-analysis of the effect of garlic on blood pressure. J Hypertension 1994;12:463–8.
99. Louria DB, McAnally JF, Lasser N, et al. Onion extract in treatment of hypertension and hyperlipidemia: A preliminary communication. Curr Ther Res 1985;37:127–31.
100. Robinson M, Lu B, Edirisinghe I, Kappagoda CT. Effect of grape seed extract on blood pressure in subjects with pre-hypertension. J Pharm Nutr Sci 2012;2:155–9.
101. Schmidt U, Kuhn U, Ploch M, Hübner W-D. Efficacy of the hawthorn (Crataegus) preparation LI 132 in 78 patients with chronic congestive heart failure defined as NYHA functional class II. Phytomed 1994;1(1):17–24.
102. Walker AF, Marakis G, Simpson E, et al. Hypotensive effects of hawthorn for patients with diabetes taking prescription drugs: a randomised controlled trial. Br J Gen Pract 2006;56:437–43.
103. McKay DL, Chen CY, Saltzman E, Blumberg JB. Hibiscus sabdariffa L. tea (tisane) lowers blood pressure in prehypertensive and mildly hypertensive adults. J Nutr 2010;140:298–303.
104. Haji Faraji M, Haji Tarkhani AH. The effect of sour tea (Hibiscus sabdariffa) on essential hypertension. J Ethnopharmacol 1999;65:231–6.
105. Herrera-Arellano A, Flores-Romero S, Chavez-Soto MA, Tortoriello J. Effectiveness and tolerability of a standardized extract from Hibiscus sabdariffa in patients with mild to moderate hypertension: a controlled and randomized clinical trial. Phytomedicine 2004;11(5):375–82.
106. Motoyama T, Sano H, Fukuzaki H, et al. Oral magnesium supplementation in patients with essential hypertension. Hypertension 1989;13:227–32.
107. Patki PS, Singh J, Gokhale SV, et al. Efficacy of potassium and magnesium in essential hypertension: a double-blind, placebo controlled, crossover study. BMJ 1990;301:521–3.
108. Dyckner T, Wester PO. Effect of magnesium on blood pressure. BMJ 1983;286:1847–9.
109. Grossman E, Laudon M, Yalcin R, et al. Melatonin reduces night blood pressure in patients with nocturnal hypertension. Am J Med 2006;119:898–902.
110. Petkov V, Manolov P. Pharmacological analysis of the iridoid oleuropein. Arzneimittelforschung 1972;22:1476–86.
111. Weiss RF. Herbal Medicine. Gothenburg, Sweden: AB Arcancum, 1988, 160–1.
112. Susalit E, Agus N, Effendi I, et al. Olive (Olea europaea) leaf extract effective in patients with stage-1 hypertension: comparison with Captopril. Phytomedicine 2011;18:251–4.
113. Juraschek SP, Guallar E, Appel LJ, Miller ER III. Effects of vitamin C supplementation on blood pressure: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Am J Clin Nutr 2012;95:1079–88.
114. Pfeifer M, Begerow B, Minne HW, et al. Effects of a short-term vitamin D3 and calcium supplementation on blood pressure and parathyroid hormone levels in elderly women.J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2001;86:1633–7.
115. Forman JP, Scott JB, Ng K, et al. Effect of vitamin D supplementation on blood pressure in blacks. Hypertension 2013;61:779–85.
116. Boshtam M, Rafiei M, Sadeghi K, Sarraf-Zadegan N. Vitamin E can reduce blood pressure in mild hypertensives. Int J Vitam Nutr Res 2002;72:309–14.
117. Calver A, Collier J, Vallance P. Dilator actions of arginine in human peripheral vasculature. Clin Sci 1991;81:695–700.
118. Pezza V, Bernardini F, Pezza E, et al. Study of supplemental oral l-arginine in hypertensives treated with enalapril + hydrochlorothiazide. Am J Hypertens 1998;11:1267–70 [letter].
119. Kramer W, Thormann J, Kindler M, Schlepper M. Effects of forskolin on left ventricular function in dilated cardiomyopathy. Arzneimittelforschung 1987;37:364–7.
120. Blumenthal M, ed. The Complete German Commission E Monographs: Therapeutic Guide to Herbal Medicines. American Botanical Council, Austin, TX. Integrative Medical Communications, Boston, MA: 1998, 152–3.
121. Lehnert H, Beyer J. Cardiovascular and endocrine properties of L-tryptophan in combination with various diets. Adv Exp Med Biol 1991;294:407–16 [review].
122. Fregly MJ, Lockley OE, Cade JR. Effect of chronic dietary treatment with L-tryptophan on the development of renal hypertension in rats. Pharmacology 1988;36:91–100.
123. Lark LA, Witt PA, Becker KB, et al. Effect of dietary tryptophan on the development of hypertension in the Dahl salt-sensitive rat. Clin Exp Hypertens A 1990;12:1–13.
124. Pop E, Anderson W, Prókai-Tátrai K, et al. Antihypertensive activity of redox derivatives of tryptophan. J Med Chem 1990;33:2216–21.
125. Cade JR, Fregly MJ, Privette M. Effect of tryptophan and 5-hydroxytryptophan on the blood pressure of patients with mild to moderate hypertension. Amino Acids 1992;2:133–42.
126. Lehnert H et al. [Note: Other authors’ names not found.] Effects of L-tryptophan on blood pressure in essential hypertensives. Clin Exp Theory Pract 1987;A9:208 [abstract].
127. Bowman IA. The everlasting mistletoe and the cardiovascular system. Texas Heart Inst J 1990;17(4):310–4 [review].
128. British Herbal Medicine Association. British Herbal Pharmacopoeia. West Yorks, UK: BHMA, 1983.
129. Silagy C, Neil AW. A meta-analysis of the effect of garlic on blood pressure. J Hypertension 1994;12:463–8.
130. Louria DB, McAnally JF, Lasser N, et al. Onion extract in treatment of hypertension and hyperlipidemia: A preliminary communication. Curr Ther Res 1985;37:127–31.
131. Jin H, Zhang G, Cao X, et al. Treatment of hypertension by ling zhi combined with hypotensor and its effects on arterial, arteriolar and capillary pressure and microcirculation. In: Nimmi H, Xiu RJ, Sawada T, Zheng C (eds). Microcirculatory Approach to Asian Traditional Medicine. New York: Elsevier Science, 1996, 131–8.
132. Schmidt U, Kuhn U, Ploch M, Hübner W-D. Efficacy of the hawthorn (Crataegus) preparation LI 132 in 78 patients with chronic congestive heart failure defined as NYHA functional class II. Phytomed 1994;1(1):17–24.
133. Walker AF, Marakis G, Simpson E, et al. Hypotensive effects of hawthorn for patients with diabetes taking prescription drugs: a randomised controlled trial. Br J Gen Pract 2006;56:437–43.
134. Zhu F, Zhang MS, Wang JL.Inhibitory effect of total flavones of Hippophaerhamnoides L on angiotensin converting enzyme from rabbit. Chin J Clin Pharm 2000;9:95-98 [in Chinese].
135. Pang X., Zhao J, Zhang W, et al. Antihypertensive effect of total flavones extracted from seed residues of Hippophaerhamnoides L. in sucrose-fed rats. J Ethnopharmacology 2008;117 :325-331.
136. Zhang X, Zhang M, Gao Z, et al. Effect of total flavones of Hippophaerhamnoides L. on sympathetic activity in hypertension. Hua XiYiKeDaXueXueBao 2001;32:547-550 [in Chinese]
137. Lehtonen HM, Suomela JP, Tahvonen R, et al. Different berries and berry fractions have various but slightly positive effects on the associated variables of metabolic diseases on overweight and obese women. Eur J ClinNutr 2011;65:394-401.
138. Kohashi N, Katori R. Decrease of urinary taurine in essential hypertension. Jpn Heart J 1983;24:91–102.
139. Abe M, Shibata K, Matsuda T, Furukawa T. Inhibition of hypertension and salt intake by oral taurine treatment in hypertensive rats. Hypertension 1987;10:383–9.
140. Fujita T, Ando K, Noda H, et al. Effects of increased adrenomedullary activity and taurine in young patients with borderline hypertension. Circulation 1987;75:525–32.
Last Review: 10-16-2013
Copyright © 2013 Aisle7. All rights reserved. Aisle7.com
The information presented in Aisle7 is for informational purposes only. It is based on scientific studies (human, animal, or in vitro), clinical experience, or traditional usage as cited in each article. The results reported may not necessarily occur in all individuals. Self-treatment is not recommended for life-threatening conditions that require medical treatment under a doctor's care. For many of the conditions discussed, treatment with prescription or over the counter medication is also available. Consult your doctor, practitioner, and/or pharmacist for any health problem and before using any supplements or before making any changes in prescribed medications. Information expires June 2014.
Healthwise, Healthwise for every health decision, and the Healthwise logo are trademarks of Healthwise, Incorporated.