Complementary Medicine - Cam
Tardive Dyskinesia (Holistic)
About This Condition
Involuntary muscle tics may be a consequence of long-term “antipsychotic” medication use. According to research or other evidence, the following self-care steps may be helpful.
About This Condition
Tardive Dyskinesia (TD) is a condition of abnormal, repetitive, uncontrollable movements that develop after a long-term use of so-called antipsychotic medications used to treat schizophrenia and related psychiatric disorders. The term “tardive” (which means “late”) is used because the condition appears only after long-term use of these drugs, which include chlorpromazine (Thorazine), thioridazine (Mellaril), and trifluoperazine (Stelazine). Dyskinesia means “abnormal movement.”
The uncontrollable movements of TD can interfere greatly with a person’s quality of life. TD may gradually diminish in severity after the medication is discontinued, but all too often the problem is permanent, persisting after withdrawal from the drugs that caused the condition. Conventional treatment for TD is unsatisfactory, so prevention is considered crucial. It is important that people requiring antipsychotic drugs be given the lowest effective dose and that treatment be discontinued as soon as it is feasible.
Symptoms of TD include repetitive and involuntary movements (tics), most often of the facial muscles and tongue (such as lip smacking), although any muscle in the body can be affected (e.g., moving legs back and forth). Symptoms may be mild or severe and can interfere with eating and walking.
What Are Star Ratings?
Our proprietary “Star-Rating” system was developed to help you easily understand the amount of scientific support behind each supplement in relation to a specific health condition. While there is no way to predict whether a vitamin, mineral, or herb will successfully treat or prevent associated health conditions, our unique ratings tell you how well these supplements are understood by the medical community, and whether studies have found them to be effective for other people.
For over a decade, our team has combed through thousands of research articles published in reputable journals. To help you make educated decisions, and to better understand controversial or confusing supplements, our medical experts have digested the science into these three easy-to-follow ratings. We hope this provides you with a helpful resource to make informed decisions towards your health and well-being.
3 Stars Reliable and relatively consistent scientific data showing a substantial health benefit.
2 Stars Contradictory, insufficient, or preliminary studies suggesting a health benefit or minimal health benefit.
1 Star For an herb, supported by traditional use but minimal or no scientific evidence. For a supplement, little scientific support.
1. Adler LA, Peselow E, Rotrosen J, et al. Vitamin E treatment of tardive dyskinesia. Am J Psychiatry 1993;150:1405–7.
2. Hashim S, Sajjad A. Vitamin E in the treatment of tardive dyskinesia: a preliminary study over 7 months at different amounts. Int Clin Psychopharmacol 1988;13:147–55.
3. Sajjad SHA. Vitamin E in the treatment of tardive dyskinesia: a preliminary study over 7 months at different doses. Int Clin Psychopahrmacol 1998;13:147–55.
4. Elkashef AM, Ruskin PE, Bacher N, Barrett D. Vitamin E in the treatment of tardive dyskinesia. Am J Psychiatry 990;147:505–6.
5. Lohrr JB, Cadet JL, Lohr MA. Alpha-tocopherol in tardive dyskinesia. Lancet 1987;1:913–4.
6. Shriqui CL, Bradwejn J, Annable L, Jones BD. Vitamin E in the treatment of tardive dyskinesia: a double-blind placebo-controlled study. Am J Psychiatry 1992;149:391–3.
7. Dorevitch A, Kalian M, Shlafman M, Lerner V. Treatment of long-term tardive dyskinesia with vitamin E. Biol Psychiatry 1997;41:114–6.
8. Egan MF, Hyde TH, Albers GW, et al. Treatment of tardive dyskinesia with vitamin E. Am J Psychiatry 1992;149:773–7.
9. Lohr JB, Caligiuri MP. A double-blind placebo-controlled study of vitamin E treatment of tardive dyskinesia. J Clin Psychiatry 1996;57:167–73.
10. Zhang W-F, Tan Y-L, Zhang X-Y, RCK Chan, et al. Extract of Ginkgo biloba Treatment for Tardive Dyskinesia in Schizophrenia J Clin Psychiatry 2011;72:615-21.
11. Davis KL, Hollister LE, Barchas JD, Berger PA. Choline in tardive dyskinesia and Huntington’s disease: preliminary results from a pilot study. Life Sci 1976;19:1507–15.
12. Gelenberg AJ, Doller-Wojcik JC, Growdon JH. Choline and lecithin in the treatment of tardive dyskinesia: preliminary results from a pilot study. Am J Psychiatry 1979;136:772–6.
13. Growdon JH, Hirsch MJ, Wurtman RJ, Wiener W. Oral choline administration to patients with tardive dyskinesia. N Engl J Med 1977;297:524–7.
14. Nasrallah HA, Dunner FJ, Smith RE, et al. Variable clinical response to choline in tardive dyskinesia. Psychol Med 1984;14:697–700.
15. Anderson BG, Reker D, Ristich M, et al. Lecithin treatment of tardive dyskinesia—a progress report. Psychopharmacol Bull 1982;18:87–8.
16. Jackson IV, Nuttall EA, Perez-Cruet J. Treatment of tardive dyskinesia with lecithin. Am J Psychiatr 1979;136:1458–60.
17. Kunin RA. Manganese in dyskinesias. Am J Psychiatry 1976;133:105.
18. Norris JP, Sams RE. More on the use of manganese in dyskinesia. Am J Psychiatry 1997;134:1448.
19. Hoffer A. Tardive dyskinesia treated with manganese. Can Med Assoc J 1977;117:859.
20. Shamir E, Barak Y, Shalman I, et al. Melatonin treatment for tardive dyskinesia. A double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2001;58:1049–52.
21. Richardson MA, Bevans ML, Weber JB, et al. Branched chain amino acids decrease tardive dyskinesia symptoms. Psychopharmacology 1999;143:358–64.
22. Casey DE, Denney D. Dimethylaminoethanol in tardive dyskinesia. N Engl J Med 1974;291:797 [letter].
23. Soares, KV, McGrath JJ. The treatment of tardive dyskinesia–a systematic review and meta-analysis. Schizophr Res 1999;39:1–16 [review].
24. Vaddadi KS. Essential fatty acids and neuroleptic drug-associated tardive dyskinesia: preliminary clinical observations. IRCS Med Sci 1984;12:678.
25. Vaddadi KS, Courtney P, Gilleard CJ, et al. A double-blind trial of essential fatty acid supplementation in patients with tardive dyskinesia. Psychiatr Res 1989;27:313–23.
26. Kozell L, Sandyk R, Wagner GC, Fisher H. The effects of L-tryptophan on haloperidol-induced movement disorder in the rat. Life Sci 1987;41:1739-44.
27. Sandyk R, Bamford CR, Khan I, Fisher H. L-tryptophan in neuroleptic-induced tardive dyskinesia. Int J Neurosci 1988;42:127-30.
28. Sandyk R, Consroe PF, Iacono RP. L-tryptophan in drug-induced movement disorders with insomnia. N Engl J Med 1986;314:1257.
29. Sandyk R, Consroe PF, Iacono RP. L-tryptophan in drug-induced movement disorders with insomnia. N Engl J Med 1986;314:1257.
30. Tkacz C. A preventive measure for tardive dyskinesia. J Int Acad Prev Med 1984;8:(5)5–8.
31. Toll N. To the editor. J Orthomolec Psychiatry 1982;11:42.
32. Tkacz C. A preventive measure for tardive dyskinesia. J Int Acad Prev Med 1984;8:(5)5–8.
33. Toll N. To the editor. J Orthomolec Psychiatry 1982;11:42.
34. Tkacz C. A preventive measure for tardive dyskinesia. J Int Acad Prev Med 1984;8:(5)5–8.
35. Toll N. To the editor. J Orthomolec Psychiatry 1982;11:42.
36. Tkacz C. A preventive measure for tardive dyskinesia. J Int Acad Prev Med 1984;8:(5)5–8.
37. Toll N. To the editor. J Orthomolec Psychiatry 1982;11:42.
Last Review: 02-05-2013
Copyright © 2013 Aisle7. All rights reserved. Aisle7.com
The information presented in Aisle7 is for informational purposes only. It is based on scientific studies (human, animal, or in vitro), clinical experience, or traditional usage as cited in each article. The results reported may not necessarily occur in all individuals. Self-treatment is not recommended for life-threatening conditions that require medical treatment under a doctor's care. For many of the conditions discussed, treatment with prescription or over the counter medication is also available. Consult your doctor, practitioner, and/or pharmacist for any health problem and before using any supplements or before making any changes in prescribed medications. Information expires June 2014.
Healthwise, Healthwise for every health decision, and the Healthwise logo are trademarks of Healthwise, Incorporated.