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Aloe

Aloe

Uses

Botanical names:
Aloe barbadensis, Aloe vera

Parts Used & Where Grown

The aloe plant originally came from Africa. The leaves, which are long, green, fleshy, and have spikes along the edges, are used medicinally. The fresh leaf gel and latex are used for many purposes. Aloe latex is the sticky residue left over after the liquid from cut aloe leaves has evaporated.

What Are Star Ratings?

Our proprietary “Star-Rating” system was developed to help you easily understand the amount of scientific support behind each supplement in relation to a specific health condition. While there is no way to predict whether a vitamin, mineral, or herb will successfully treat or prevent associated health conditions, our unique ratings tell you how well these supplements are understood by the medical community, and whether studies have found them to be effective for other people.

For over a decade, our team has combed through thousands of research articles published in reputable journals. To help you make educated decisions, and to better understand controversial or confusing supplements, our medical experts have digested the science into these three easy-to-follow ratings. We hope this provides you with a helpful resource to make informed decisions towards your health and well-being.

3 Stars Reliable and relatively consistent scientific data showing a substantial health benefit.

2 Stars Contradictory, insufficient, or preliminary studies suggesting a health benefit or minimal health benefit.

1 Star For an herb, supported by traditional use but minimal or no scientific evidence. For a supplement, little scientific support.

This supplement has been used in connection with the following health conditions:

Used for Why
3 Stars
Constipation
50 to 200 mg of aloe latex once per day for a maximum of ten days
Learn More
For constipation, a single 50 to 200 mg capsule of aloe latex can be taken each day for a maximum of ten days.

The laxatives most frequently used world-wide come from plants. Herbal laxatives are either bulk-forming or stimulating.

Stimulant laxatives are high in anthraquinone glycosides, which stimulate bowel muscle contraction. The most frequently used stimulant laxatives are senna leaves, cascara bark, and aloe latex. While senna is the most popular, cascara has a somewhat milder action. Aloe is very potent and should be used with caution. Other stimulant laxatives include buckthorn , alder buckthorn  (Rhamnus frangula), and rhubarb (Rheum officinale, R. palmatum).

2 Stars
Burns
Apply gel three to five times per day
Learn More

Aloe is a popular remedy for minor burns and a small preliminary study found it more effective than Vaseline in treating burns.1 The stabilized aloe gel is typically applied to the affected area of skin three to five times per day. Older case studies reported that aloe gel applied topically could help heal radiation burns,2 but a large, double-blind trial did not find aloe effective in this regard.3

2 Stars
Canker Sores
Follow label instructions
Learn More

A gel containing the Aloe vera polysaccharide acemannan was found in one double-blind trial to speed the healing of canker sores better than the conventional treatment Orabase Plain.4 The gel was applied four times daily. Because acemannan levels can vary widely in commercial aloe gel products, it is difficult to translate these results to the use of aloe gel for canker sores.

2 Stars
Genital Herpes
Apply a 0.5% cream three times per day
Learn More

Aloe vera may also benefit those with genital herpes. A double-blind trial using a 0.5% Aloe vera cream found that applying the cream three times a day shortened the healing time of genital herpes outbreaks. All but 3 of 22 persons in the study who showed healing with the aloe cream had no recurrences 15 months after stopping treatment.5

2 Stars
Psoriasis
Apply a 0.5% extract three times daily
Learn More

A double-blind trial in Pakistan found that topical application of an aloe extract (0.5%) in a cream was more effective than placebo in the treatment of adults with psoriasis.6 The aloe cream was applied three times per day for four weeks.

2 Stars
Seborrheic Dermatitis
Apply a topical herbal cream containing 30% aloe emulsion
Learn More

A crude extract of aloe  (Aloe barbadensis, Aloe vera) may help seborrheic dermatitis when applied topically. In a double-blind trial, people with seborrheic dermatitis applied either a 30% crude aloe emulsion or a similar placebo cream twice a day for four to six weeks.7 Significantly more people responded to topical aloe vera than to placebo: 62% of those using the aloe vera reported improvements in scaling and itching, compared to only 25% in the placebo group.

2 Stars
Skin Ulcers
Apply gel on gauze or dressings daily
Learn More

Aloe vera has been used historically to improve wound healing and contains several constituents that may be important for this effect. A group of three patients who had chronic skin ulcerations for 5, 7, and 15 years, respectively, had a rapid reduction in ulcer size after the application of aloe gel on gauze bandages to the ulcers, according to a preliminary report.8 A controlled study found most patients with pressure ulcers had complete healing after applying an aloe hydrogel dressing to the ulcers every day for ten weeks.9 However, this result was not significantly better than that achieved with a moist saline gauze dressing. The amorphous hydrogel dressing used in the above study and derived from the aloe plant (Carrasyn Gel Wound Dressing, Carrington Laboratories, Irving, TX) is approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for the management of mild to moderate skin ulcers.

2 Stars
Type 2 Diabetes
1 Tbsp (15 ml) of gel daily
Learn More
Animal research and preliminary controlled human trials have found that Aloe vera, either alone or in combination with the oral hypoglycemic drug glibenclamide, effectively lowers blood sugar in people with type 2 diabetes.10 , 11 , 12 , 13 The typical amount used in this research was 1 tablespoon (15 ml) of aloe gel per day.
2 Stars
Ulcerative Colitis
100 ml of an Aloe vera herbal extract twice a day
Learn More

Aloe vera juice has anti-inflammatory activity and been used by some doctors for people with UC. In a double-blind study of people with mildly to moderately active ulcerative colitis, supplementation with aloe resulted in a complete remission or an improvement in symptoms in 47% of cases, compared with 14% of those given a placebo (a statistically significant difference).14 No significant side effects were seen. The amount of aloe used was 100 ml (approximately 3.5 ounces) twice a day for four weeks. Other traditional anti-inflammatory and soothing herbs, including calendula , flaxseed , licorice , marshmallow , myrrh , and yarrow . Many of these herbs are most effective, according to clinical experience, if taken internally as well as in enema form.15 Enemas should be avoided during acute flare-ups but are useful for mild and chronic inflammation. It is best to consult with a doctor experienced with botanical medicine to learn more about herbal enemas before using them. More research needs to be done to determine the effectiveness of these herbs.

2 Stars
Wound Healing
Apply stabilized gel three to five times daily
Learn More

In animal studies of skin inflammation, both topical and oral aloe vera have proven beneficial in decreasing inflammation and promoting cellular repair.16 , 17 Topical aloe vera has facilitated wound healing in controlled human research, as well.18 In one controlled trial, however, topical aloe vera gel was inferior to conventional management of surgical wounds.19

1 Star
Crohn’s Disease
Refer to label instructions
Learn More

A variety of anti-inflammatory herbs historically have been recommended by doctors for people with Crohn’s disease. These include yarrow , chamomile , licorice , and aloe juice. Cathartic preparations of aloe should be avoided. No research has been conducted to validate the use of these herbs for Crohn’s disease.

1 Star
Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease
Refer to label instructions
Learn More

Other herbs traditionally used to treat reflux and heartburn include digestive demulcents (soothing agents) such as aloe vera , slippery elm , bladderwrack , and marshmallow .20 None of these have been scientifically evaluated for effectiveness in GERD. However, a drug known as Gaviscon, containing magnesium carbonate (as an antacid) and alginic acid derived from bladderwrack, has been shown helpful for heartburn in a double-blind trial.21 It is not clear whether whole bladderwrack would be as useful as its alginic acid component.

1 Star
Sunburn
Refer to label instructions
Learn More

Topical aloe (Aloe vera) is often recommended for soothing burns, but only one preliminary human study involving sunburn has been published, and applying aloe gel after ultraviolet exposure had no effect on reddening of the skin.22 No research has investigated whether applying aloe gel before ultraviolet exposure might be more effective.

Traditional Use (May Not Be Supported by Scientific Studies)

Aloe has been historically used for many of the same conditions for which it is used today—particularly constipation and minor cuts and burns . In India, it has been used by herbalists to treat intestinal infections , suppressed menses, and colic .

How It Works

Botanical names:
Aloe barbadensis, Aloe vera

How It Works

The constituents of aloe latex responsible for its laxative effects are known as anthraquinone glycosides. These molecules are split by the normal bacteria in the large intestines to form other molecules (aglycones), which exert the laxative action. Since aloe is such a powerful laxative, other plant laxatives such as senna or cascara are often recommended first.

Topically, it is not yet clear which constituents are responsible for the wound healing properties of aloe.23 Test tube studies suggest polysaccharides, such as acemannan, help promote skin healing by anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and immune-stimulating actions. Aloe’s effects on the skin may also be enhanced by its high concentration of amino acids , as well as vitamin E , vitamin C , zinc , and essential fatty acids.

Aloe has been used to treat minor burns .24 Stabilized aloe gel is applied to the affected area of skin three to five times per day. Older case studies reported that aloe gel applied topically could help heal radiation burns,25 and a small clinical trial found it more effective than a topical petroleum jelly in treating burns.26 However, a large, modern, placebo-controlled trial did not find aloe effective for treating minor burns.27

Two small controlled human trials have found that aloe, either alone or in combination with the oral hypoglycemic drug, glibenclamide, effectively lowers blood sugar in people with type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes .28 , 29

An aloe extract in a cream has been shown effective in a double-blind trial in people with psoriasis .30

How to Use It

For constipation , a single 50–200 mg capsule of aloe latex can be taken each day for a maximum of ten days.

For minor burns , the stabilized aloe gel is applied topically to the affected area of skin three to five times per day. Treatment of more serious burns should only be done under the supervision of a healthcare professional. For internal use of aloe gel, two tablespoons (30 ml) three times per day is used by some people with conditions such as Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis (see precautions below). For type 2 diabetes , clinical trials have used one tablespoon (15 ml) of aloe juice, twice daily. Treatment of diabetes with aloe should only be done under the supervision of a qualified healthcare professional.

Interactions

Botanical names:
Aloe barbadensis, Aloe vera

Interactions with Supplements, Foods, & Other Compounds

At the time of writing, there were no well-known supplement or food interactions with this supplement.

Interactions with Medicines

Certain medicines interact with this supplement.

Types of interactions: Beneficial Adverse Check

Replenish Depleted Nutrients

  • none

Reduce Side Effects

  • none

Support Medicine

  • Desonide

    In animal research, applying aloe (Aloe vera) gel topically along with a topical corticosteroid enhanced the hormone’s anti-inflammatory activity in the skin.31 No human research has investigated this effect.

    The interaction is supported by preliminary, weak, fragmentary, and/or contradictory scientific evidence.
  • Fluticasone

    In animal research, applying aloe (Aloe vera) gel topically along with a topical corticosteroid enhanced the hormone’s anti-inflammatory activity in the skin.32 No human research has investigated this effect.

    The interaction is supported by preliminary, weak, fragmentary, and/or contradictory scientific evidence.
  • Glyburide

    One single-blind study in Thailand reported that combining 1 Tbsp (15 ml) of aloe (Aloe vera) juice twice daily with glyburide significantly improved blood sugar and lipid levels in people with diabetes, compared with placebo.33 Previously, glyburide by itself had not effectively controlled the diabetes in the people in this study.

    The interaction is supported by preliminary, weak, fragmentary, and/or contradictory scientific evidence.

Reduces Effectiveness

  • none

Potential Negative Interaction

  • none

Explanation Required

  • Alclometasone

    In animal research, applying aloe (Aloe vera) gel topically along with a topical corticosteroid enhanced the hormone’s anti-inflammatory activity in the skin.34 No human research has investigated this effect.

    The interaction is supported by preliminary, weak, fragmentary, and/or contradictory scientific evidence.
  • Amcinonide

    In animal research, applying aloe (Aloe vera) gel topically along with a topical corticosteroid enhanced the hormone’s anti-inflammatory activity in the skin.35 No human research has investigated this effect.

    The interaction is supported by preliminary, weak, fragmentary, and/or contradictory scientific evidence.
  • Betamethasone

    In animal research, applying aloe (Aloe vera) gel topically along with a topical corticosteroid enhanced the hormone’s anti-inflammatory activity in the skin.36 No human research has investigated this effect.

    The interaction is supported by preliminary, weak, fragmentary, and/or contradictory scientific evidence.
  • Betamethasone Valerate

    In animal research, applying aloe (Aloe vera) gel topically along with a topical corticosteroid enhanced the hormone’s anti-inflammatory activity in the skin.37 No human research has investigated this effect.

    The interaction is supported by preliminary, weak, fragmentary, and/or contradictory scientific evidence.
  • Betamethasone, Augmented

    In animal research, applying aloe (Aloe vera) gel topically along with a topical corticosteroid enhanced the hormone’s anti-inflammatory activity in the skin.38 No human research has investigated this effect.

    The interaction is supported by preliminary, weak, fragmentary, and/or contradictory scientific evidence.
  • Clobetasol

    In animal research, applying aloe (Aloe vera) gel topically along with a topical corticosteroid enhanced the hormone’s anti-inflammatory activity in the skin.39 No human research has investigated this effect.

    The interaction is supported by preliminary, weak, fragmentary, and/or contradictory scientific evidence.
  • Clocortolone

    In animal research, applying aloe (Aloe vera) gel topically along with a topical corticosteroid enhanced the hormone’s anti-inflammatory activity in the skin.40 No human research has investigated this effect.

    The interaction is supported by preliminary, weak, fragmentary, and/or contradictory scientific evidence.
  • Desoximetasone

    In animal research, applying aloe (Aloe vera) gel topically along with a topical corticosteroid enhanced the hormone’s anti-inflammatory activity in the skin.41 No human research has investigated this effect.

    The interaction is supported by preliminary, weak, fragmentary, and/or contradictory scientific evidence.
  • Diflorasone

    In animal research, applying aloe (Aloe vera) gel topically along with a topical corticosteroid enhanced the hormone’s anti-inflammatory activity in the skin.42 No human research has investigated this effect.

    The interaction is supported by preliminary, weak, fragmentary, and/or contradictory scientific evidence.
  • Fluocinonide

    In animal research, applying aloe (Aloe vera) gel topically along with a topical corticosteroid enhanced the hormone’s anti-inflammatory activity in the skin.43 No human research has investigated this effect.

    The interaction is supported by preliminary, weak, fragmentary, and/or contradictory scientific evidence.
  • Flurandrenolide

    In animal research, applying aloe (Aloe vera) gel topically along with a topical corticosteroid enhanced the hormone’s anti-inflammatory activity in the skin.44 No human research has investigated this effect.

    The interaction is supported by preliminary, weak, fragmentary, and/or contradictory scientific evidence.
  • Halcinonide

    In animal research, applying aloe (Aloe vera) gel topically along with a topical corticosteroid enhanced the hormone’s anti-inflammatory activity in the skin.45 No human research has investigated this effect.

    The interaction is supported by preliminary, weak, fragmentary, and/or contradictory scientific evidence.
  • Halobetasol

    In animal research, applying aloe (Aloe vera) gel topically along with a topical corticosteroid enhanced the hormone’s anti-inflammatory activity in the skin.46 No human research has investigated this effect.

    The interaction is supported by preliminary, weak, fragmentary, and/or contradictory scientific evidence.
  • Hydrocortisone

    In animal research, applying aloe (Aloe vera) gel topically along with a topical corticosteroid enhanced the hormone’s anti-inflammatory activity in the skin.47 No human research has investigated this effect.

    The interaction is supported by preliminary, weak, fragmentary, and/or contradictory scientific evidence.
  • Mometasone

    In animal research, applying aloe (Aloe vera) gel topically along with a topical corticosteroid enhanced the hormone’s anti-inflammatory activity in the skin.48 No human research has investigated this effect.

    The interaction is supported by preliminary, weak, fragmentary, and/or contradictory scientific evidence.
  • Prednicarbate

    In animal research, applying aloe (Aloe vera) gel topically along with a topical corticosteroid enhanced the hormone’s anti-inflammatory activity in the skin.49 No human research has investigated this effect.

    The interaction is supported by preliminary, weak, fragmentary, and/or contradictory scientific evidence.
The Drug-Nutrient Interactions table may not include every possible interaction. Taking medicines with meals, on an empty stomach, or with alcohol may influence their effects. For details, refer to the manufacturers’ package information as these are not covered in this table. If you take medications, always discuss the potential risks and benefits of adding a supplement with your doctor or pharmacist.

Side Effects

Botanical names:
Aloe barbadensis, Aloe vera

Side Effects

Except in the rare person who is allergic to aloe, topical application of the gel is generally safe. For any burn that blisters significantly or is otherwise severe, medical attention is absolutely essential. In some severe burns and wounds , aloe gel may actually impede healing.50

The latex form of aloe should not be used by anyone with inflammatory intestinal diseases, such as Crohn’s disease , ulcerative colitis , or appendicitis. It should also not be used by children, or by women during pregnancy or breast-feeding .51

In people with constipation, aloe latex should not be used for more than ten consecutive days as it may lead to dependency and fluid loss. Extensive fluid loss may lead to depletion of important electrolytes in the body such as potassium .52

References

1. Visuthikosol V, Chowchuen B, Sukwanarat Y, et al. Effect of aloe vera gel to healing of burn wound: A clinical and histologic study. J Med Assoc Thai 1995;78:403–9.

2. Loveman AB. Leaf of Aloe vera in treatment of Roentgen ray ulcers. Arch Derm Syph 1937;36:838–43.

3. Williams MS, Burk M, Loprinzi CL, et al. Phase III double-blind evaluation of an Aloe vera gel as a prophylactic agent for radiation-induced skin toxicity. Int J Rad Oncol Biol Phys 1996;36:345–9.

4. Plemons JM, Reps TD, Binnie WH, et al. Evaluation of acemannan in the treatment of recurrent aphthous stomatitis. Wounds 1994;6:40–5.

5. Syed TA, Afzal M, Ahmad SA, et al. Management of genital herpes in men with 0.5% Aloe vera extract in a hydrophylic cream: a placebo-controlled, double-blind study. J Dermatol Treat 1997;8:99–102.

6. Syed TA, Ahmed SA, Holt AH, et al. Management of psoriasis with Aloe vera extract in a hydrophilic cream: A placebo-controlled, double-blind study. Tropical Med Inter Health 1996;1:505–9.

7. Vardy DA, Cohen AD, Tchetov T, et al. A double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of an Aloe vera (A. barbadensis) emulsion in the treatment of seborrheic dermatitis. J Dermatol Treat 1999;10:7–11.

8. Zawahry ME, Hegazy MR, Helal M. Use of aloe in treating leg ulcers and dermatoses. Int J Dermatol 1973;12:68–73.

9. Thomas DR, Goode PS, LaMaster K, Tennyson T. Acemannan hydrogel dressing versus saline dressing for pressure ulcers. A randomized, controlled trial. Adv Wound Care 1998;11:273–6.

10. Rajasekaran S, Sivagnanam K, Subramanian S. Hypoglycemic effect of Aloe vera gel on streptozotocin-induced diabetes in experimental rats. J Med Food 2004;7:61–6.

11. Yongchaiyudha S, Rungpitarangs V, Bunyapraphatsara N, Chokechaijaroenporn O. Antidiabetic activity of Aloe vera L. juice. I. Clinical trial in new cases of diabetes mellitus. Phytomedicine 1996;3:241–3.

12. Bunyapraphatsara N, Yongchaiyudha S, Rungpitarangsi V, Chokechaijaroenporn O. Antidiabetic activity of Aloe vera L juice. II. Clinical trial in diabetes mellitus patients in combination with glibenclamide. Phytomedicine 1996;3:245–8.

13. Vogler BK, Ernst E. Aloe vera: a systematic review of its clinical effectiveness. Br J Gen Pract 1999;49:823–8 [review].

14. Langmead L, Feakins RM, Goldthorpe S, et al. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of oral aloe vera gel for active ulcerative colitis. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2004;19:739–47.

15. Weiss RF. Herbal Medicine. Beaconsfield, UK: Beaconsfield Publishers Ltd, 1989, 114–5.

16. Davis RH, Stewart GH, Bregman PJ. Aloe vera and the inflamed synovial pouch model. J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 1992;82(3):140–8.

17. Davis RH, Leitner MG, Russo JM, Byrne ME. Wound healing. Oral and topical activity of Aloe vera. J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 1989:79:559–62.

18. Shelton RW. Aloe vera, its chemical and therapeutic properties. Int J Dermatol 1991;30:679–83.

19. Schmidt JM, Greenspoon JS. Aloe vera dermal wound gel is associated with a delay in wound healing. Obstet Gynecol 1991;78:115–7.

20. Golan R. Optimal Wellness. New York: Ballantine Books, 1995, 373–4.

21. Chevrel B. A comparative crossover study on the treatment of heartburn and epigastric pain: Liquid Gaviscon and a magnesium-aluminum antacid gel. J Int Med Res 1980;8:300–3.

22. Crowell J, Penneys N. The effects of aloe vera on cutaneous erythema and blood flow following ultraviolet B (UVB) exposure. Clin Res 1987;35:676A [abstract].

23. Penneys NS. Inhibition of arachidonic acid oxidation in vitro by vehicle components. Acta Derm Venerol Stockh 1981;62:59–61.

24. Visuthikosol V, Chowchuen B, Sukwanarat Y, et al. Effect of Aloe vera to healing of burn wound: A clinical and histologic study. J Med Assoc Thai 1995;78:403–9.

25. Loveman AB. Leaf of Aloe vera in treatment of Roentgen ray ulcers. Arch Derm Syph 1937;36:838–43.

26. Visuthikosol V, Chowchuen B, Sukwanarat Y, et al. Effect of aloe vera gel in the healing of burn wound: a clinical and histologic study. J Med Assoc Thai 1995;78:403–9.

27. Williams MS, Burk M, Loprinzi CL, et al. Phase III double-blind evaluation of an Aloe vera gel as a prophylactic agent for radiation-induced skin toxicity. Int J Rad Oncol Biol Phys 1996;36:345–9.

28. Yongchaiyudha S, Rungpitarangs V, Bunyapraphatsara N, Chokechaijaroenporn O. Antidiabetic activity of Aloe vera L. juice. I. Clinical trial in new cases of diabetes mellitus. Phytomedicine 1996;3:241–3.

29. Bunyapraphatsara N, Yongchaiyudha S, Rungpitarangsi V, Chokechaijaroenporn O. Antidiabetic activity of Aloe vera L juice. II. Clinical trial in diabetes mellitus patients in combination with glibenclamide. Phytomedicine 1996;3:245–8.

30. Syed TA, Ahmad SA, Holt AH, et al. Management of psoriasis with Aloe vera extract in a hydrophilic cream: a placebo-controlled double-blind study. Trop Med Int Health 1996;1:505–9.

31. Davis RH, Parker WL, Murdoch DP. Aloe vera as a biologically active vehicle for hydrocortisone acetate. J Am Podiatric Med Assoc 1991;81:1–9.

32. Davis RH, Parker WL, Murdoch DP. Aloe vera as a biologically active vehicle for hydrocortisone acetate. J Am Podiatric Med Assoc 1991;81:1–9.

33. Bunyapraphatsara N, Yongchaiyudha S, Rungpitarangsi V, Chokechaijaroenporn O. Antidiabetic activity of Aloe vera L. juice. II. Clinical trial in diabetes mellitus patients in combination with glibenclamide. Phytomed 1996;3:245–8.

34. Davis RH, Parker WL, Murdoch DP. Aloe vera as a biologically active vehicle for hydrocortisone acetate. J Am Podiatric Med Assoc 1991;81:1–9.

35. Davis RH, Parker WL, Murdoch DP. Aloe vera as a biologically active vehicle for hydrocortisone acetate. J Am Podiatric Med Assoc 1991;81:1–9.

36. Davis RH, Parker WL, Murdoch DP. Aloe vera as a biologically active vehicle for hydrocortisone acetate. J Am Podiatric Med Assoc 1991;81:1–9.

37. Davis RH, Parker WL, Murdoch DP. Aloe vera as a biologically active vehicle for hydrocortisone acetate. J Am Podiatric Med Assoc 1991;81:1–9.

38. Davis RH, Parker WL, Murdoch DP. Aloe vera as a biologically active vehicle for hydrocortisone acetate. J Am Podiatric Med Assoc 1991;81:1–9.

39. Davis RH, Parker WL, Murdoch DP. Aloe vera as a biologically active vehicle for hydrocortisone acetate. J Am Podiatric Med Assoc 1991;81:1–9.

40. Davis RH, Parker WL, Murdoch DP. Aloe vera as a biologically active vehicle for hydrocortisone acetate. J Am Podiatric Med Assoc 1991;81:1–9.

41. Davis RH, Parker WL, Murdoch DP. Aloe vera as a biologically active vehicle for hydrocortisone acetate. J Am Podiatric Med Assoc 1991;81:1–9.

42. Davis RH, Parker WL, Murdoch DP. Aloe vera as a biologically active vehicle for hydrocortisone acetate. J Am Podiatric Med Assoc 1991;81:1–9.

43. Davis RH, Parker WL, Murdoch DP. Aloe vera as a biologically active vehicle for hydrocortisone acetate. J Am Podiatric Med Assoc 1991;81:1–9.

44. Davis RH, Parker WL, Murdoch DP. Aloe vera as a biologically active vehicle for hydrocortisone acetate. J Am Podiatric Med Assoc 1991;81:1–9.

45. Davis RH, Parker WL, Murdoch DP. Aloe vera as a biologically active vehicle for hydrocortisone acetate. J Am Podiatric Med Assoc 1991;81:1–9.

46. Davis RH, Parker WL, Murdoch DP. Aloe vera as a biologically active vehicle for hydrocortisone acetate. J Am Podiatric Med Assoc 1991;81:1–9.

47. Davis RH, Parker WL, Murdoch DP. Aloe vera as a biologically active vehicle for hydrocortisone acetate. J Am Podiatric Med Assoc 1991;81:1–9.

48. Davis RH, Parker WL, Murdoch DP. Aloe vera as a biologically active vehicle for hydrocortisone acetate. J Am Podiatric Med Assoc 1991;81:1–9.

49. Davis RH, Parker WL, Murdoch DP. Aloe vera as a biologically active vehicle for hydrocortisone acetate. J Am Podiatric Med Assoc 1991;81:1–9.

50. Schmidt JM, Greenspoon JS. Aloe vera dermal wound gel is associated with a delay in wound healing. Obstet Gynecol 1991;78:115–7.

51. Blumenthal M, Busse WR, Goldberg A, et al. (eds). The Complete Commission E Monographs: Therapeutic Guide to Herbal Medicines. Boston, MA: Integrative Medicine Communications, 1998, 80–1.

52. Blumenthal M, Busse WR, Goldberg A, et al. (eds). The Complete Commission E Monographs: Therapeutic Guide to Herbal Medicines. Boston, MA: Integrative Medicine Communications, 1998, 80–1.

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