This plant grows in Europe and North America. The flowering tops are used in botanical medicine. Another plant, white clover, grows in similar areas. Both have white arrow-shaped patterns on their leaves.
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For over a decade, our team has combed through thousands of research articles published in reputable journals. To help you make educated decisions, and to better understand controversial or confusing supplements, our medical experts have digested the science into these three easy-to-follow ratings. We hope this provides you with a helpful resource to make informed decisions towards your health and well-being.
3 StarsReliable and relatively consistent scientific data showing a substantial health benefit.
2 StarsContradictory, insufficient, or preliminary studies suggesting a health benefit or minimal health benefit.
1 StarFor an herb, supported by traditional use but minimal or no scientific evidence. For a supplement, little scientific support.
This supplement has been used in connection with the following health conditions:
80 mg of isoflavones daily
A variety of herbs with weak estrogen-like actions similar to the effects of soy have traditionally been used for women with menopausal symptoms.2 These herbs include licorice, alfalfa, and red clover. In a double-blind trial, a formula containing tinctures of licorice, burdock, dong quai, wild yam, and motherwort (30 drops three times daily) was found to reduce symptoms of menopause.3 No effects on hormone levels were detected in this study. In a separate double-blind trial, supplementation with dong quai (4.5 grams three times daily in capsules) had no effect on menopausal symptoms or hormone levels.4 A double-blind trial using a standardized extract of subterranean clover (Trifolium subterraneum), a relative of red clover, containing 40 mg isoflavones per tablet did not impact symptoms of menopause, such as hot flashes, though it did improve function of the arteries.5 An extract of red clover, providing 82 mg of isoflavones per day, also was ineffective in a 12-week double-blind study.6 In another double-blind study, however, administration of 80 mg of isoflavones per day from red clover reduced the frequency of hot flashes in postmenopausal women. The benefit was noticeable after 4 weeks of treatment and became more pronounced after a total of 12 weeks.7 An extract of red clover also decreased symptoms of anxiety and depression in postmenopausal women in a double-blind study. The extract provided 80 mg of isoflavones per day and was taken for 90 days.8
Take an extract supplying 26 mg of biochanin A, 16 mg of formononetin, 1 mg of genistein, and 0.5 mg of daidzein per day
In a double-blind study, supplementation with isoflavones from red clover for one year reduced the amount of bone loss from the spine by 45%, compared with a placebo.9 The supplement used provided daily 26 mg of biochanin A, 16 mg of formononetin, 1 mg of genistein, and 0.5 mg of daidzein.
Traditional Use (May Not Be Supported by Scientific Studies)
Traditional Chinese Medicine and Western folk medicine used this plant as a diuretic, a cough expectorant (an agent that promotes discharge of mucus from the respiratory passages), and an alterative.1 Alterative plants were considered beneficial for chronic conditions, particularly those afflicting the skin.
How It Works
How It Works
Red clover is known as an alterative agent—in other words, one that produces gradual beneficial changes in the body, usually by improving nutrition; also known as a “blood cleanser.” It is a traditional remedy for psoriasis and eczema. However, the mechanism of action and constituents responsible for red clover’s purported benefit in skin conditions are unknown.
Modern research has revealed that red clover also contains high amounts of isoflavones, such as biochanin A, formononetin, and genistein, which have weak estrogen-like properties.10 Modern research has focused on a red clover extract high in isoflavones as a possible treatment for symptoms associated with menopause and cardiovascular health in menopausal women. In a double-blind study, administration of 80 mg of isoflavones per day from red clover reduced the frequency of hot flashes in postmenopausal women. The benefit was noticeable after 4 weeks of treatment and became more pronounced after a total of 12 weeks.11 Another double-blind trial found that red clover improved cardiovascular function in menopausal women.12 Various laboratory studies suggest red clover isoflavones may help prevent prostate cancer.13, 14 In a case study, use of red clover by a man with prostate cancer led to noticeable anticancer effects in his prostate after the cancer was surgically removed. Although the isoflavones in red clover may help prevent certain forms of cancer (for example, breast and prostate), further studies are needed before red clover is recommended for cancer patients.
How to Use It
Traditionally, red clover is taken as a tea, by adding 1 cup (250 ml) of boiling water to 2 to 3 teaspoons (10 to 15 grams) of dried flowers and steeping, covered, for ten to fifteen minutes.15 Three cups (750 ml) can be drunk each day. Red clover can also be used in capsule or tablet form, equivalent to 2 to 4 grams of the dried flowers. Also, 1/2 to 3/4 teaspoon (2 to 4 ml) of tincture three times per day may be taken. Standardized extracts providing 40 mg isoflavones per day are available as well.16
Interactions with Supplements, Foods, & Other Compounds
At the time of writing, there were no well-known supplement or food interactions with this supplement.
Although there are no specific studies demonstrating interactions with anticoagulants, the following herbs contain coumarin-like substances that may interact with heparin and could conceivably cause bleeding.17 These herbs include dong quai, fenugreek, horse chestnut, red clover, sweet clover, and sweet woodruff. People should consult a healthcare professional if they’re taking an anticoagulant and wish to use one of these herbs.
The interaction is supported by preliminary, weak, fragmentary, and/or contradictory scientific evidence.
The Drug-Nutrient Interactions table may not include every possible interaction. Taking medicines with meals, on an empty stomach, or with alcohol may influence their effects. For details, refer to the manufacturers’ package information as these are not covered in this table. If you take medications, always discuss the potential risks and benefits of adding a supplement with your doctor or pharmacist.
Nonfermented red clover is relatively safe. However, fermented red clover may cause bleeding and should be avoided. Red clover supplements should be avoided by pregnant or breast-feeding women and their safety has not been established in young children and infants.
The information presented in Aisle7 is for informational purposes only. It is based on scientific studies (human, animal, or in vitro), clinical experience, or traditional usage as cited in each article. The results reported may not necessarily occur in all individuals. For many of the conditions discussed, treatment with prescription or over the counter medication is also available. Consult your doctor, practitioner, and/or pharmacist for any health problem and before using any supplements or before making any changes in prescribed medications. Information expires June 2014.
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