Complementary Medicine - Cam
What Are Star Ratings?
Our proprietary “Star-Rating” system was developed to help you easily understand the amount of scientific support behind each supplement in relation to a specific health condition. While there is no way to predict whether a vitamin, mineral, or herb will successfully treat or prevent associated health conditions, our unique ratings tell you how well these supplements are understood by the medical community, and whether studies have found them to be effective for other people.
For over a decade, our team has combed through thousands of research articles published in reputable journals. To help you make educated decisions, and to better understand controversial or confusing supplements, our medical experts have digested the science into these three easy-to-follow ratings. We hope this provides you with a helpful resource to make informed decisions towards your health and well-being.
3 Stars Reliable and relatively consistent scientific data showing a substantial health benefit.
2 Stars Contradictory, insufficient, or preliminary studies suggesting a health benefit or minimal health benefit.
1 Star For an herb, supported by traditional use but minimal or no scientific evidence. For a supplement, little scientific support.
This supplement has been used in connection with the following health conditions:
How It Works
How to Use It
For atherosclerosis , researchers have sometimes started therapy using very high amounts, such as 5 grams twice per day with meals, lowering the amount to 500 mg three times per day after a few months. Before taking such high amounts, people should consult a doctor. For osteoarthritis , a typical level is 400 mg three times per day. Oral chondroitin sulfate is rapidly absorbed in humans when it is dissolved in water prior to ingestion. Approximately 12% of chondroitin sulfate taken by mouth becomes available to the joint tissues from the blood.35
Where to Find It
The only significant food source of chondroitin sulfate is animal cartilage .
Interactions with Supplements, Foods, & Other Compounds
Interactions with Medicines
Certain medicines interact with this supplement.
Types of interactions: Beneficial Adverse Check
Replenish Depleted Nutrients
Reduce Side Effects
Potential Negative Interaction
The Drug-Nutrient Interactions table may not include every possible interaction. Taking medicines with meals, on an empty stomach, or with alcohol may influence their effects. For details, refer to the manufacturers’ package information as these are not covered in this table. If you take medications, always discuss the potential risks and benefits of adding a supplement with your doctor or pharmacist.
Nausea may occur at intakes greater than 10 grams per day. No other adverse effects have been reported.
One doctor has raised a concern that chondroitin sulfate should not be used by men with prostate cancer . This concern is based upon two studies. In one, the concentration of chondroitin sulfate was found to be higher in cancerous prostate tissue as compared to normal prostate tissue.37 In the other study, it was shown that higher concentrations of chondroitin sulfate in the tissue surrounding a cancerous prostate tumor predict a higher rate of recurrence of the cancer after surgery.38 However, no studies to date have addressed the question of whether taking chondroitin sulfate supplements could promote the development of prostate cancer. Simply because a substance is present in or around cancerous tissue does not by itself suggest that that substance is causing the cancer. For example, calcium is a component of atherosclerotic plaques that harden the arteries; however, there is no evidence that taking calcium supplements causes atherosclerosis. To provide meaningful information, further studies would need to track the incidence of prostate cancer in men taking chondroitin supplements. Until then, most nutritionally-oriented doctors remain unconcerned about this issue.
1. Kerzberg EM, Roldan EJA, Castelli G, Huberman ED. Combination of glycosaminoglycans and acetylsalicylic acid in knee osteoarthritis. Scand J Rheum 1987;16:377.
2. Baici A, Hörler D, Moser B, et al. Analysis of glycosaminoglycans in human serum after oral administration of chondroitin sulfate. Rheumatol Int 1992;12:81–8.
3. Kerzberg EM, Roldán EJA, Castelli G, Huberman ED. Combination of glycosaminoglycans and acetylsalicylic acid in knee osteoarthrosis. Scand J Rheumatol 1987;16:377–80.
4. Rovetta G. Galactosaminoglycuronoglycan sulfate (Matrix) in therapy of tibiofibular osteoarhtirits of the knee. Drugs Exptl Clin Res 1991;17:53–7.
5. Conte A, Volpi N, Palmieri L, et al. Biochemical and pharmacokinetic aspects of oral treatment with chondroitin sulfate. Arzneimittelforschung 1995;45:918–25.
6. Ronca F, Palmieri L, Panicucci P, Ronca G. Anti-inflammatory active of chondroitin sulfate. Osteoarthritis Cartilage 1998;6(Suppl A):14–21.
7. Uebelhart D, Thonar EJ, Delmas PD, et al. Effects of oral chondroitin sulfate on the progression of knee osteoarthritis: a pilot study. Osteoarthritis Cartilage 1998;6(Suppl A):39–46.
8. Verbruggen G, Goemaere S, Veys EM. Chondroitin sulfate: S/DMOAD (structure/disease modifying anti-osteoarthritis drug) in the treatment of finger joint OA. Osteoarthritis Cartilage 1998;6(Suppl A):37–8.
9. Bucsi L, Poór G. Efficacy and tolerability of oral chondroitin sulfate as a symptomatic slow-acting drug for osteoarthritis (SYSADOA) in the treatment of knee osteoarthritis. Osteoarthritis Cartilage 1998;6(Suppl A):31–6.
10. Bourgeois P, Chales G, Dehais J, et al. Efficacy and tolerability of chondroitin sulfate 1200 mg/day vs chondroitin sulfate 3X400 mg/day vs placebo. Osteoarthritis Cartilage 1998;6(Suppl A):25–30.
11. Pipitone V, Ambanelli U, Cervini C, et al. A multicenter, triple-blind study to evaluate galactosaminoglucuronoglycan sulfate versus placebo in patients with femorotibial gonarthritis. Curr Ther Res 1992;52:608–38.
12. Bazières B, Loyau G, Menkès CJ, et al. Le chondroïtine sulfate dans le traitement de la gonarthrose et de la coxarthrose. Rev Rhum Mal Ostéoartic 1992;59:466–72 [in French].
13. Conrozier T, Vignon E. Die Wirkung von Chondroitinsulfat bei der Behandlung der Hüft Gelenksarthrose. Eine Doppelblindstudie gegen Placebo. Litera Rheumatologica 1992;14:69–75 [in German].
14. L’Hirondel JL. Klinische Doppelblind-Studie mit oral verabreichtem Chondroitinsulfat gegen Placebo bei der tibiofermoralen Gonarthrose (125 Patienten). Litera Rheumatologica 1992;14:77–82 [in German].
15. Morreale P, Manopulo R, Galati M, et al. Comparison of the antiinflammatory efficacy of chondroitin sulfate and diclofenac sodium in patients with knee osteoarthritis. J Rheumatol 1996;23:1385–91.
16. Leeb BF, Petera P, Neumann K. Results of a multicenter study of chondroitin sulfate (Condrosulf) use in arthroses of the finger, knee and hip joints. Wien Med Wochenschr 1996;146:609–14.
17. Wildi LM, Raynauld JP, Martel-Pelletier J, et al. Chondroitin sulphate reduces both cartilage volume loss and bone marrow lesions in knee osteoarthritis patients starting as early as 6 months after initiation of therapy: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study using MRI. Ann Rheum Dis 2011;70:982–9.
18. Bourgeois P, Chales G, Dehais J, et al. Efficacy and tolerability of chondroitin sulfate 1200 mg/day vs chondroitin sulfate 3X400 mg/day vs placebo. Osteoarthritis Cartilage 1998;6(Suppl A):25–30.
19. Morrison LM, Branwood AW, Ershoff BH, et al. The prevention of coronary arteriosclerotic heart disease with chondroitin sulfate A: Preliminary report. Exp Med Surg 1969;27:278–89.
20. Morrison LM, Enrick NL. Coronary heart disease: Reduction of death rate by chondroitin sulfate A. Angiology 1973;24:269–82.
21. Izuka K, Murata K, Nakazawa K, et al. Effects of chondroitin sulfates on serum lipids and hexosamines in atherosclerotic patients: With special reference to thrombus formation time. Jpn Heart J 1968;9:453–60.
22. Nakazawa K, Murata K. Comparative study of the effects of chondroitin sulfate isomers on atherosclerotic subjects. ZFA 1979;34:153–9.
23. Morrison LM, Enrick NL. Coronary heart disease: reduction of death rate by chondroitin sulfate A. Angiology 1973;24:269–87.
24. Baggio B, Gambaro G, Marchini F, et al. Correction of erythrocyte abnormalities in idiopathic calcium-oxalate nephrolithiasis and reduction of urinary oxalate by oral glycosaminoglycans. Lancet 1991;338:403–5.
25. Morrison LM, Murata K. Absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion of acid mucopolysaccharides administered to animals and patients. In: Morrison LM, Schjeide OA, Meyer K. Coronary heart disease and the mucopolysaccharides (glycosaminoglycans). Springfield: Charles C. Thomas, 1974, 109–27.
26. Denuziere A, Ferrier D, Damour O, et al. Chitosan-chondroitin sulfate and chitosan-hyaluronate polyelectrolyte complexes: biological properties. Biomaterials 1998;19:1275–85.
27. McCarty MF. Glucosamine for wound healing. Med Hypotheses 1996;47:273–5 [review].
28. Glade MJ. Polysulfated glycosaminoglycan accelerates net synthesis of collagen and glycosaminoglycans by arthritic equine cartilage tissues and chondrocytes. Am J Vet Res 1990;51:779–85.
29. Prudden JF, Wolarsky ER, Balassa L. The acceleration of healing. Surg Gynecol Obstet 1969;128:1321–6 [review].
30. Bucci L. Nutrition applied to injury rehabilitation and sports medicine. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 1995, 193.
31. Sprengel H, Franke J, Sprengel A. Personal experiences in the conservative therapy of patellar chondropathy. Beitr Orthop Traumatol 1990;37:259–66 [in German].
32. Lysholm J. The relation between pain and torque in an isokinetic strength test of knee extension. Arthroscopy 1987;3:182–4.
33. Ziegler R, Rau R. Conservative or operative treatment for chondropathia patellae? Beitr Orthop Traumatol 1980;27:201–11 [in German].
34. Böhmer D, Ambrus P, Szögy A, et al. Treatment of chondropathia patellae in young athletes with glucosamine sulfate. In: Bachl N, Prokop L, Suckert R, eds. Current topics in sports medicine. Vienna: Urban & Schwarzenberg, 1984, 799.
35. Ronca F, Palmieri L, Panicucci P, Ronca G. Anti-inflammatory activity of chondroitin sulfate. Osteoarthritis Cartilage 1998;6(Supplement A):14–21.
36. Knudsen JF, Sokol GH. Potential glucosamine-warfarin interaction resulting in increased international normalized ratio: case report and review of the literature and MedWatch database. Pharmacotherapy 2008;28:540-8.
37. De Klerk DP, Lee DV, Human HJ. Glycosaminoglycans of human prostatic cancer. J Urol 1984;131:1008–12.
38. Ricciardelli C, Quinn DI, Raymond WA, et al. Elevated levels of peritumoral chondroitin sulfate are predictive of poor prognosis in patients treated by radical prostatectomy for early-stage prostate cancer. Cancer Res 1999;59:2324–8.
Last Review: 02-05-2013
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The information presented in Aisle7 is for informational purposes only. It is based on scientific studies (human, animal, or in vitro), clinical experience, or traditional usage as cited in each article. The results reported may not necessarily occur in all individuals. For many of the conditions discussed, treatment with prescription or over the counter medication is also available. Consult your doctor, practitioner, and/or pharmacist for any health problem and before using any supplements or before making any changes in prescribed medications. Information expires June 2014.
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