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Complementary Medicine - Cam

Copper

Copper

Uses

What Are Star Ratings?

Our proprietary “Star-Rating” system was developed to help you easily understand the amount of scientific support behind each supplement in relation to a specific health condition. While there is no way to predict whether a vitamin, mineral, or herb will successfully treat or prevent associated health conditions, our unique ratings tell you how well these supplements are understood by the medical community, and whether studies have found them to be effective for other people.

For over a decade, our team has combed through thousands of research articles published in reputable journals. To help you make educated decisions, and to better understand controversial or confusing supplements, our medical experts have digested the science into these three easy-to-follow ratings. We hope this provides you with a helpful resource to make informed decisions towards your health and well-being.

3 Stars Reliable and relatively consistent scientific data showing a substantial health benefit.

2 Stars Contradictory, insufficient, or preliminary studies suggesting a health benefit or minimal health benefit.

1 Star For an herb, supported by traditional use but minimal or no scientific evidence. For a supplement, little scientific support.

This supplement has been used in connection with the following health conditions:

Used for Why
2 Stars
Anemia
If deficient: 2 to 3 mg daily
Copper deficiency can contribute to anemia, supplementing with this mineral may restore levels and improve symptoms.

Deficiencies of iron , vitamin B12 , and folic acid are the most common nutritional causes of anemia.1 Although rare, severe deficiencies of several other vitamins and minerals, including vitamin A ,2 , 3 vitamin B2 ,4 vitamin B6 ,5 , 6 vitamin C ,7 and copper ,8 , 9 can also cause anemia by various mechanisms. Rare genetic disorders can cause anemias that may improve with large amounts of supplements such as vitamin B1 .10 , 11

2 Stars
High Cholesterol
3 to 4 mg daily
Copper deficiency has been linked to high blood cholesterol, supplementing with it may correct a deficiency and lower cholesterol.
Deficiency of the trace mineral copper has been linked to high blood cholesterol.13 , 14 In a controlled trial, daily supplementation with 3 to 4 mg of copper for eight weeks decreased blood levels of total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol, in a group of people over 50 years of age.15
2 Stars
Menkes’ Disease
Consult a qualified healthcare practitioner regarding copper injections
Some studies have shown favorable effects of injectable copper on brain and nerve development when treatment was begun early and the degree of genetic defect was mild.

Copper injections are used to treat Menkes’ disease. The success of this treatment often depends on the severity of the disease.

Some studies have shown favorable effects of injectable copper on brain and nerve development in people with Menkes’ disease when the degree of genetic defect was mild and treatment was begun early.16 However, copper therapy does not benefit Menkes’ patients if the genetic defects are severe, or if therapy is begun after the physical defects manifest.17 Some researchers have observed that damaging levels of copper can build up in the tissues of some copper-treated people with Menkes’ disease.18 For example, in one study a boy developed low blood pressure in response to changing body position (called orthostatic hypotension), an enlarged spleen, and ballooning of an artery in his abdomen. However, whether these anomalies resulted from therapy or from the Menkes’ disease itself remains unclear. As a result, copper therapy is still considered experimental19 and potentially dangerous. People with Menkes’ disease should consult a healthcare professional before supplementing with copper.

In 1989, one researcher suggested that Menkes’ disease is caused by a defect in zinc metabolism that reduces copper availability.20 The possibility of this zinc-copper interaction in Menkes’ disease has since been investigated in preliminary test tube research.21 , 22 , 23 , 24 These studies have shown that supplementation with zinc does not alter the way cells from people with Menkes’ disease use copper. Therefore, zinc supplementation is unlikely to be beneficial in Menkes’ disease.

2 Stars
Osteoporosis
2 to 3 mg daily
Copper is needed for normal bone synthesis, and one trial reported that copper reduced bone loss.

Copper is needed for normal bone synthesis. Recently, a two-year, controlled trial reported that 3 mg of copper per day reduced bone loss.25 When taken over a shorter period of time (six weeks), the same level of copper supplementation had no effect on biochemical markers of bone loss.26 Some doctors recommend 2 to 3 mg of copper per day, particularly if zinc is also being taken, in order to prevent a deficiency. Supplemental zinc significantly depletes copper stores, so people taking zinc supplements for more than a few weeks generally need to supplement with copper also. Calcium, magnesium, zinc, and copper are sometimes found at appropriate levels in high-potency multivitamin-mineral supplements .

One trial studying postmenopausal women combined hormone replacement therapy with magnesium (600 mg per day), calcium (500 mg per day), vitamin C , B vitamins , vitamin D, zinc, copper, manganese, boron , and other nutrients for an eight- to nine-month period.27 In addition, participants were told to avoid processed foods, limit protein intake, emphasize vegetable over animal protein, and limit consumption of salt, sugar, alcohol, coffee, tea, chocolate, and tobacco. Bone density increased a remarkable 11%, compared to only 0.7% in women receiving hormone replacement alone.

2 Stars
Wound Healing
2 to 4 mg daily
Copper plays a role in the strengthening of connective tissue and may help promote wound healing.

Copper is a required cofactor for the enzyme lysyl oxidase, which plays a role in the cross-linking (and strengthening) of connective tissue.28 Doctors often recommend a copper supplement as part of a comprehensive nutritional program to promote wound healing. A typical amount recommended is 2–4 mg per day, beginning two weeks prior to surgery and continuing for four weeks after surgery.

1 Star
Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm
Refer to label instructions
Copper is required for normal artery structure, and deficiency of the vitamin may lead to weak aortic walls and aorta rupture. Supplementing with copper may combat deficiency.

Copper is required for normal artery structure.29 Animal studies have shown that copper deficiency leads to weak aortic walls30 and rupture of the aorta.31 Combating deficiency with copper supplements prevented rupture in an animal study.32 Copper deficiency in humans with AAA has been suggested in some studies,33 , 34 but not in others.35 , 36 , 37 No studies have been done using copper supplements to prevent or manage aneurysms.

1 Star
Athletic Performance
Refer to label instructions
In one trial a combination of zinc and copper significantly reduced evidence of post-exercise free radical activity.

In one double-blind trial a combination of 50 mg per day of zinc and 3 mg per day of copper significantly reduced evidence of post-exercise free radical activity.38

Exercise increases zinc losses from the human body, and severe zinc deficiency can compromise muscle function.39 , 40 Athletes who do not eat an optimal diet, especially those who are trying to control their weight or use fad diets while exercising strenuously, may become deficient in zinc to the extent that performance or health is compromised.41 , 42 One double-blind trial in women found that 135 mg per day of zinc for two weeks improved one measure of muscle strength.43 Whether these women were zinc deficient was not determined in this study. A double-blind study of male athletes with low blood levels of zinc found that 20 mg per day of zinc improved the flexibility of the red blood cells during exercise, which could benefit blood flow to the muscles.44 No other studies of the effects of zinc supplementation in exercising people have been done. A safe amount of zinc for long-term use is 20 to 40 mg per day along with 1 to 2 mg of copper. Higher amounts should be taken only under the supervision of a doctor.

1 Star
Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia
Refer to label instructions
If you are taking large amounts of zinc (such as 30 mg per day or more) for BHP, most doctors recommend supplementing with copper to avoid copper deficiency.

Prostatic secretions are known to contain a high concentration of zinc ; that observation suggests that zinc plays a role in normal prostate function. In one preliminary study, 19 men with benign prostatic hyperplasia took 150 mg of zinc daily for two months, and then 50 to 100 mg daily. In 74% of the men, the prostate became smaller.45 Because this study did not include a control group, improvements may have been due to a placebo effect. Zinc also reduced prostatic size in an animal study but only when given by local injection.46 Although the research supporting the use of zinc is weak, many doctors recommend its use. Because supplementing with large amounts of zinc (such as 30 mg per day or more) may potentially lead to copper deficiency, most doctors recommend taking 2 to 3 mg of copper per day along with zinc.

1 Star
Cardiac Arrhythmia
Refer to label instructions
Supplementing with copper may reduce the frequency of abnormal heartbeats.

Three cases have been reported in which ventricular premature beats disappeared after supplementation with copper (4 mg per day in the two cases for which amounts were reported).47 In one of these people, supplementing with zinc made the arrhythmia worse, confirming previous observations that excessive zinc intake may lead to copper deficiency,48 which in turn may lead to arrhythmia.

1 Star
Hypoglycemia
Refer to label instructions
Copper helps control blood sugar levels in diabetics, and since there are similarities in the way the body regulates high and low blood sugar levels, it may be helpful for hypoglycemia as well.

Research has shown that supplementing with chromium (200 mcg per day)49 or magnesium (340 mg per day)50 can prevent blood sugar levels from falling excessively in people with hypoglycemia. Niacinamide (vitamin B3) has also been found to be helpful for hypoglycemic people.51 Other nutrients, including vitamin C , vitamin E , zinc , copper , manganese , and vitamin B6 , may help control blood sugar levels in diabetics .52 Since there are similarities in the way the body regulates high and low blood sugar levels, these nutrients might be helpful for hypoglycemia as well, although the amounts needed for that purpose are not known.

1 Star
Rheumatoid Arthritis
Refer to label instructions
People with rheumatoid arthritis tend to be deficient in copper, which acts as an anti-inflammatory agent needed to activate an enzyme that protects joints from inflammation.

Copper acts as an anti-inflammatory agent needed to activate superoxide dismutase (SOD), an enzyme that protects joints from inflammation. People with RA tend toward copper deficiency53 and copper supplementation has been shown to increase SOD levels in humans.54 The Journal of the American Medical Association quoted one researcher as saying that while “Regular aspirin had 6% the anti-inflammatory activity of [cortisone] . . . copper [when added to aspirin] had 130% the activity [of cortisone].”55

Several copper compounds have been used successfully in treating people with RA,56 and a controlled trial using copper bracelets reported surprisingly effective results compared with the effect of placebo bracelets.57 Under certain circumstances, however, copper can increase inflammation in rheumatoid joints.58 Moreover, the form of copper most consistently reported to be effective, copper aspirinate (a combination of copper and aspirin ), is not readily available. Nonetheless, some doctors suggest a trial of 1–3 mg of copper per day for at least several months.

1 Star
Sprains and Strains
Refer to label instructions
Trace minerals, such as copper, are known to be important in the biochemistry of tissue healing.

Zinc is a component of many enzymes, including some that are needed to repair wounds. Even a mild deficiency of zinc can interfere with optimal recovery from everyday tissue damage as well as from more serious trauma.59 Trace minerals, such as manganese , copper , and silicon are also known to be important in the biochemistry of tissue healing.60 , 61 , 62 , 63 However, there have been no controlled studies of people with sprains or strains to explore the effect of deficiency of these minerals, or of oral supplementation, on the rate of healing.

How It Works

How to Use It

Most people consume less than the recommended amount of this mineral. Some doctors recommend supplementing the average diet with 1–3 mg of copper per day. While the necessity of supplementing a normal diet with copper has not been proven, most people who take zinc supplements, including the zinc found in multivitamin-mineral supplements, should probably take additional copper.

Cupric oxide (CuO) is a form of copper frequently used in vitamin-mineral supplements sold over-the-counter. However, animal studies have shown conclusively this form of copper is poorly absorbed from the gut; it should therefore not be used in supplements.64 , 65 , 66 , 67 Several other forms of copper (including copper sulfate, cupric acetate, and alkaline copper carbonate) are better absorbed, and are therefore preferable to cupric oxide.68

Where to Find It

The best source of copper is oysters. Nuts, dried legumes, cereals, potatoes, vegetables, and meat also contain copper.

Possible Deficiencies

Many people consume slightly less than the “safe and adequate range” of copper, 1.5–3.0 mg per day. Little is known about the clinical effects of these marginally adequate intakes, though frank copper deficiency is uncommon. Children with Menkes’ disease are unable to absorb copper normally and become severely deficient unless medically treated early in life. Deficiency can also occur in people who supplement with zinc without also increasing copper intake. Zinc interferes with copper absorption.69 Health consequences of zinc-induced copper deficiency can be quite serious.70 In the absence of copper supplementation, vitamin C supplementation has also been reported to mildly impair copper metabolism.71 Copper deficiency can result in anemia, lower levels of HDL (“good”) cholesterol , or cardiac arrhythmias .

Interactions

Interactions with Supplements, Foods, & Other Compounds

Zinc interferes with copper absorption. People taking zinc supplements for more than a few weeks should also take copper (unless they have Wilson’s disease). In the absence of copper supplementation, vitamin C may interfere with copper metabolism. Copper improves absorption and utilization of iron .

Interactions with Medicines

Certain medicines interact with this supplement.

Types of interactions: Beneficial Adverse Check

Replenish Depleted Nutrients

  • AZT

    Preliminary human research suggests AZT therapy may cause a reduction in copper and zinc blood levels. The practical importance of these findings remains unclear.

  • Valproate

    In various studies of children treated with valproic acid for epilepsy compared with control groups, serum zinc levels remained normal74 , 75 or decreased,76 serum copper levels remained normal77 , 78 or decreased,79 and red blood cell zinc levels were decreased.80 The importance of these changes and how frequently they occur remain unclear.

    The interaction is supported by preliminary, weak, fragmentary, and/or contradictory scientific evidence.

Reduce Side Effects

  • Oxaprozin

    Supplementation may enhance the anti-inflammatory effects of NSAIDs while reducing their ulcerogenic effects. One study found that when various anti-inflammatory drugs were chelated with copper, the anti-inflammatory activity was increased.73 Animal models of inflammation have found that the copper chelate of aspirin was active at one-eighth the effective dose of aspirin. These copper complexes are less toxic than the parent compounds, as well.

    The interaction is supported by preliminary, weak, fragmentary, and/or contradictory scientific evidence.

Support Medicine

  • Oxaprozin

    Supplementation may enhance the anti-inflammatory effects of NSAIDs while reducing their ulcerogenic effects. One study found that when various anti-inflammatory drugs were chelated with copper, the anti-inflammatory activity was increased.72 Animal models of inflammation have found that the copper chelate of aspirin was active at one-eighth the effective dose of aspirin. These copper complexes are less toxic than the parent compounds, as well.

    The interaction is supported by preliminary, weak, fragmentary, and/or contradictory scientific evidence.

Reduces Effectiveness

  • Ciprofloxacin

    Minerals such as aluminum, calcium , copper , iron , magnesium , manganese , and zinc can bind to ciprofloxacin, greatly reducing the absorption of the drug.81 , 82 , 83 , 84 Because of the mineral content, people are advised to take ciprofloxacin two hours after consuming dairy products (milk, cheese, yogurt, ice cream, and others), antacids (Maalox®, Mylanta®, Tums®, Rolaids®, and others), and mineral-containing supplements.85

Potential Negative Interaction

  • none

Explanation Required

  • Desogestrel-Ethinyl Estradiol

    A review of literature suggests that women who use OCs may experience decreased vitamin B1 , B2 , B3 , B12 , C , and zinc levels.86 , 87 , 88 OC use has been associated with increased absorption of calcium and copper and with increased blood levels of copper and vitamin A .89 , 90 , 91 OCs may interfere with manganese absorption.92 The clinical importance of these actions remains unclear.

  • Ethinyl Estradiol and Levonorgestrel
    A review of literature suggests that women who use oral contraceptives may experience decreased vitamin B1 , B2 , B3 , B12 , C , and zinc levels.93 , 94 , 95 Oral contraceptive use has been associated with increased absorption of calcium and copper and with increased blood levels of copper and vitamin A .96 , 97 , 98 Oral contraceptives may interfere with manganese absorption.99 The clinical importance of these actions remains unclear.
  • Ethinyl Estradiol and Norethindrone

    A review of literature suggests that women who use OCs may experience decreased vitamin B1 , B2 , B3 , B12 , C , and zinc levels.100 , 101 , 102 OC use has been associated with increased absorption of calcium and copper and with increased blood levels of copper and vitamin A .103 , 104 , 105 OCs may interfere with manganese absorption.106 The clinical importance of these actions remains unclear.

  • Ethinyl Estradiol and Norgestimate

    A review of literature suggests that women who use OCs may experience decreased vitamin B1 , B2 , B3 , B12 , C , and zinc levels.107 , 108 , 109 OC use has been associated with increased absorption of calcium and copper and with increased blood levels of copper and vitamin A .110 , 111 , 112 OCs may interfere with manganese absorption.113 The clinical importance of these actions remains unclear.

  • Ethinyl Estradiol and Norgestrel

    A review of literature suggests that women who use OCs may experience decreased vitamin B1 , B2 , B3 , B12 , C , and zinc levels.114 , 115 , 116 OC use has been associated with increased absorption of calcium and copper and with increased blood levels of copper and vitamin A .117 , 118 , 119 OCs may interfere with manganese absorption.120 The clinical importance of these actions remains unclear.

  • Etodolac

    Supplementation may enhance the anti-inflammatory effects of NSAIDs while reducing their ulcerogenic effects. One study found that when various anti-inflammatory drugs were chelated with copper, the anti-inflammatory activity was increased.121 Animal models of inflammation have found that the copper chelate of aspirin was active at one-eighth the effective amount of aspirin. These copper complexes are less toxic than the parent compounds, as well.

    The interaction is supported by preliminary, weak, fragmentary, and/or contradictory scientific evidence.
  • Famotidine

    Some evidence indicates that other vitamins and minerals, such as folic acid 122 and copper ,123 require the presence of stomach acid for optimal absorption. Long-term use of H-2 blockers may therefore promote a deficiency of these nutrients. Individuals requiring long-term use of H-2 blockers may therefore benefit from a multiple vitamin/mineral supplement .

  • Ibuprofen

    Supplementation may enhance the anti-inflammatory effects of NSAIDs while reducing their ulcerogenic effects. One study found that when various anti-inflammatory drugs were chelated with copper, the anti-inflammatory activity was increased.124 Animal models of inflammation have found that the copper chelate of aspirin was active at one-eighth the effective amount of aspirin. These copper complexes are less toxic than the parent compounds as well.

    The interaction is supported by preliminary, weak, fragmentary, and/or contradictory scientific evidence.
  • Levonorgestrel

    A review of literature suggests that women who use OCs may experience decreased vitamin B1 , B2 , B3 , B12 , C , and zinc levels.125 , 126 , 127 OC use has been associated with increased absorption of calcium and copper and with increased blood levels of copper and vitamin A .128 , 129 , 130 OCs may interfere with manganese absorption.131 The clinical importance of these actions remains unclear.

  • Levonorgestrel-Ethinyl Estrad

    A review of literature suggests that women who use OCs may experience decreased vitamin B1 , B2 , B3 , B12 , C , and zinc levels.132 , 133 , 134 OC use has been associated with increased absorption of calcium and copper and with increased blood levels of copper and vitamin A .135 , 136 , 137 OCs may interfere with manganese absorption.138 The clinical importance of these actions remains unclear.

  • Mestranol and Norethindrone

    A review of literature suggests that women who use OCs may experience decreased vitamin B1 , B2 , B3 , B12 , C , and zinc levels.139 , 140 , 141 OC use has been associated with increased absorption of calcium and copper and with increased blood levels of copper and vitamin A .142 , 143 , 144 OCs may interfere with manganese absorption.145 The clinical importance of these actions remains unclear.

  • Nabumetone

    Supplementation may enhance the anti-inflammatory effects of NSAIDs while reducing their ulcerogenic effects. One study found that when various anti-inflammatory drugs were chelated with copper, the anti-inflammatory activity was increased.146 Animal models of inflammation have found that the copper chelate of aspirin was active at one-eighth the effective amount of aspirin. These copper complexes are less toxic than the parent compounds, as well.

    The interaction is supported by preliminary, weak, fragmentary, and/or contradictory scientific evidence.
  • Naproxen

    Supplementation with copper may enhance the anti-inflammatory effects of NSAIDs while reducing their ulcerogenic effects. One study found that when various anti-inflammatory drugs were chelated with copper, the anti-inflammatory activity was increased.147 Animal models of inflammation have found that the copper chelate of aspirin was active at one-eighth the effective dose of aspirin. These copper complexes are less toxic than the parent compounds, as well.

    The interaction is supported by preliminary, weak, fragmentary, and/or contradictory scientific evidence.
  • Nizatidine

    There is some evidence that other vitamins and minerals, such as folic acid 148 and copper ,149 require the presence of stomach acid for optimal absorption. Long-term use of H-2 blockers may therefore promote a deficiency of these nutrients. Individuals requiring long-term use of H-2 blockers may therefore benefit from a multiple vitamin/mineral supplement.

  • Norgestimate-Ethinyl Estradiol

    A review of literature suggests that women who use OCs may experience decreased vitamin B1 , B2 , B3 , B12 , C , and zinc levels.150 , 151 , 152 OC use has been associated with increased absorption of calcium and copper and with increased blood levels of copper and vitamin A .153 , 154 , 155 OCs may interfere with manganese absorption.156 The clinical importance of these actions remains unclear.

  • Penicillamine

    One of the main uses of penicillamine is to reduce toxic copper deposits in people with Wilson’s disease. People taking a copper supplement can make Wilson’s disease worse and may negate the benefits of drugs used to remove copper from the body.

The Drug-Nutrient Interactions table may not include every possible interaction. Taking medicines with meals, on an empty stomach, or with alcohol may influence their effects. For details, refer to the manufacturers’ package information as these are not covered in this table. If you take medications, always discuss the potential risks and benefits of adding a supplement with your doctor or pharmacist.

Side Effects

Side Effects

The level at which copper causes problems is unclear. But in combination with zinc , up to 3 mg per day is considered safe. People drinking tap water from new copper pipes should consult their doctor before supplementing, since they might be getting enough (or even too much) copper from their water. People with Wilson’s disease should never take copper.

Preliminary evidence shows that the levels of copper in the blood were higher among people who died from coronary heart disease than among those who did not.157 However, animals studies and some human studies suggest that, if anything, copper may prevent the development of heart disease. Although it is not clear why people who died of heart disease had elevated copper levels, this finding could be due to chronic inflammation, which is known to be associated with increased copper levels.158

References

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44. Khaled S, Brun JF, Cassanas G, et al. Effects of zinc supplementation on blood rheology during exercise. Clin Hemorheol Microcirc 1999;20:1–10.

45. Bush IM, Berman E, Nourkayhan S, et al. Zinc and the prostate. Presented at the annual meeting of the American Medical Association Chicago, 1974.

46. Fahim MS, Fahim Z, Der R, Harman J. Zinc treatment for reduction of hyperplasia of prostate. Fed Proc 1976;35(3):361.

47. Spencer JC. Direct relationship between the body’s copper/zinc ratio, ventricular premature beats and sudden cardiac death. Am J Clin Nutr 1979;32:1184–5 [letter].

48. Porter KG, McMaster D, Elmes ME, Love AH. Anaemia and low serum-copper during zinc therapy. Lancet 1977;2:774 [letter].

49. Anderson RA et al. Chromium supplementation of humans with hypoglycemia. Fed Proc 1984;43:471.

50. Stebbing JB et al. Reactive hypoglycemia and magnesium. Magnesium Bull 1982;2:131–4.

51. Shansky A. Vitamin B3 in the alleviation of hypoglycemia. Drug Cosm Ind 1981;129(4):68–69,104–5.

52. Gaby AR, Wright JV. Nutritional regulation of blood glucose. J Advancement Med 1991;4:57–71.

53. DiSilvestro RA, Marten J, Skehan M. Effects of copper supplementation on ceruloplasmin and copper­zinc superoxide dismutase in free­living rheumatoid arthritis patients. J Am Coll Nutr 1992;11:177–80.

54. Jones AA, DiSilvestro RA, Coleman M, Wagner TL. Copper supplementation of adult men: effects on blood copper enzyme activities and indicators of cardiovascular disease risk. Metabolism 1997;46:1380–3.

55. Medical News. Copper boosts activity of anti-inflammatory drugs. JAMA 1974;229:1268–9.

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123. Tompsett SL. Factors influencing the absorption of iron and copper from the alimentary tract. Biochem J 1940;34:961–9.

124. Sorenson JRJ. Copper chelates as possible active forms of the antiarthritic agents. J Medicinal Chem 1976;19:135–48.

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129. Wynn V. Vitamins and oral contraceptive use. Lancet 1975;1:561–4.

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131. Holt GA. Food & Drug Interaction. Chicago: Precept Press, 1998, 197.

132. Werbach MR. Foundations of Nutritional Medicine. Tarzana, CA: Third Line Press, 1997, 210–1 [review].

133. Wynn V. Vitamins and oral contraceptive use. Lancet 1975;1:561–4.

134. Holt GA. Food & Drug Interaction. Chicago: Precept Press, 1998, 197–8.

135. Werbach MR. Foundations of Nutritional Medicine. Tarzana, CA: Third Line Press, 1997, 210–1 [review].

136. Wynn V. Vitamins and oral contraceptive use. Lancet 1975;1:561–4.

137. Berg G, Kohlmeier L, Brenner H. Effect of oral contraceptive progestins on serum copper concentration. Eur J Clin Nutr 1998;52:711–5.

138. Holt GA. Food & Drug Interaction. Chicago: Precept Press, 1998, 197.

139. Werbach MR. Foundations of Nutritional Medicine. Tarzana, CA: Third Line Press, 1997, 210–1 [review].

140. Wynn V. Vitamins and oral contraceptive use. Lancet 1975;1:561–4.

141. Holt GA. Food & Drug Interaction. Chicago: Precept Press, 1998, 197–8.

142. Werbach MR. Foundations of Nutritional Medicine. Tarzana, CA: Third Line Press, 1997, 210–1 [review].

143. Wynn V. Vitamins and oral contraceptive use. Lancet 1975;1:561–4.

144. Berg G, Kohlmeier L, Brenner H. Effect of oral contraceptive progestins on serum copper concentration. Eur J Clin Nutr 1998;52:711–5.

145. Holt GA. Food & Drug Interaction. Chicago: Precept Press, 1998, 197.

146. Sorenson JRJ. Copper chelates as possible active forms of the antiarthritic agents. J Medicinal Chem 1976;19:135–48.

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148. Russell RM, Krasinski SD, Samloff IM. Correction of impaired folic acid (Pte Glu) absorption by orally administered HCl in subjects with gastric atrophy. Am J Clin Nutr 1984;39:656.

149. Tompsett SL. Factors influencing the absorption of iron and copper from the alimentary tract. Biochem J 1940;34:961–9.

150. Werbach MR. Foundations of Nutritional Medicine. Tarzana, CA: Third Line Press, 1997, 210–1 [review].

151. Wynn V. Vitamins and oral contraceptive use. Lancet 1975;1:561–4.

152. Holt GA. Food & Drug Interaction. Chicago: Precept Press, 1998, 197–8.

153. Werbach MR. Foundations of Nutritional Medicine. Tarzana, CA: Third Line Press, 1997, 210–1 [review].

154. Wynn V. Vitamins and oral contraceptive use. Lancet 1975;1:561–4.

155. Berg G, Kohlmeier L, Brenner H. Effect of oral contraceptive progestins on serum copper concentration. Eur J Clin Nutr 1998;52:711–5.

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