Complementary Medicine - Cam
Type 1 Diabetes (Holistic)
About This Condition
Also known as childhood-onset diabetes, type 1 diabetes requires regular blood sugar tests and medical intervention. According to research or other evidence, the following self-care steps may be helpful.
About This Condition
Diabetes mellitus is an inability to metabolize carbohydrates resulting from inadequate insulin production or utilization. Other forms of diabetes (such as diabetes insipidus) are not included in this discussion.
There are two types of diabetes mellitus, type 1 and type 2 . This article concerns type 1 diabetes, which has also been called childhood-onset diabetes or insulin-dependent diabetes. In type 1 diabetes, the pancreas cannot make the insulin needed to process glucose. Natural therapies cannot cure type 1 diabetes, but they may help by making the body more receptive to insulin supplied by injection. It is particularly critical for people with type 1 diabetes to work carefully with the doctor prescribing insulin before contemplating the use of any herbs, supplements, or dietary changes mentioned in this article. Any change that makes the body more receptive to insulin could require critical changes in insulin dosage that must be determined by the treating physician.
People with diabetes cannot properly process glucose, a sugar the body uses for energy. As a result, glucose stays in the blood, causing blood glucose to rise. At the same time, however, the cells of the body can be starved for glucose. People with diabetes are at high risk for heart disease , atherosclerosis , cataracts , retinopathy , stroke , poor wound healing , infections , and damage to the kidneys and nerves.
Healthy Lifestyle Tips
Everyone with diabetes aged 6 months and older should get a seasonal flu shot. Close household contacts and out-of-home caregivers of people with diabetes should also get the vaccines. People can receive both flu shots at the same time.1
Unusually rapid weight gain in infancy has been associated with a one-and-a-half-fold increase in the risk of developing type 1 diabetes in childhood.2 Being overweight also increases the need for insulin . Therefore, people with type 1 diabetes should achieve and maintain appropriate body weight .
People with type 1 diabetes who engage in regular exercise require less insulin.3 However, in the short term, exercise can induce low blood sugar or even occasionally increased blood sugar.4 Moreover, a preliminary study has shown that long-term physical activity was not associated with control of blood glucose in people with type 1 diabetes.5 Therefore, people with type 1 diabetes should never begin an intensive exercise program without consulting a healthcare professional.
The American Diabetes Association (ADA) recommends that people with diabetes limit their daily alcohol consumption to one drink for women and two drinks for men.6 Similar to research on healthy people, preliminary studies in adults with diabetes find reduced risk of heart disease with light to moderate drinking.7 Drinking alcohol with type 1 diabetes can result in hypoglycemia or hyperglycemia, depending on the circumstances, but moderate amounts of alcohol ingested with food does not affect blood glucose levels.8 People with diabetes who drink two or more drinks per day were reported to have a high risk for eye damage in one preliminary study,9 but another, larger study found no association between alcohol use and eye damage.10
People with diabetes who smoke are at higher risk for kidney damage,11 heart disease ,12 and other diabetes-linked problems. Smokers are also more likely to develop diabetes,13 so it's important for diabetic smokers to quit.
Most healthcare providers agree on the necessity of self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) by people with type 1 diabetes. Advocates of SMBG, such as the ADA, have observed that SMBG by people with diabetes has revolutionized management of the disease, enabling them to achieve and maintain specific goals.14 These observations are well-supported in the medical literature.15 Detractors point out that indiscriminate use of self-monitoring is of questionable value and adds enormously to healthcare costs.16 The ADA acknowledges that accuracy of SMBG is instrument- and technique-dependent. Errors in technique and inadequate use of control procedures have been shown to lead to inaccurate test results.17 Nevertheless, it is likely that self-monitoring of blood glucose, if used properly, can have a positive effect by increasing patient involvement in overall diabetes care.18 Pharmacists and healthcare practitioners can teach people with diabetes certain skills that will enhance their ability to properly self-manage blood glucose.
Acupuncture may be helpful in the treatment of diabetes, or complications associated with diabetes. In a preliminary trial, 77% of people suffering from diabetic nerve damage (neuropathy) experienced significant reduction in pain following up to six acupuncture treatments over a ten-week period. Many were also able to reduce pain medications, but no long-term change in blood-sugar control was observed.19 Bladder control problems, a complication of long-term diabetes, responded to acupuncture treatment with a significant reduction in symptoms in both controlled and uncontrolled trials.20 , 21
The right diet is the key to managing many diseases and to improving general quality of life. For this condition, scientific research has found benefit in the following healthy eating tips.
What Are Star Ratings?
Our proprietary “Star-Rating” system was developed to help you easily understand the amount of scientific support behind each supplement in relation to a specific health condition. While there is no way to predict whether a vitamin, mineral, or herb will successfully treat or prevent associated health conditions, our unique ratings tell you how well these supplements are understood by some in the medical community, and whether studies have found them to be effective for other people.
For over a decade, our team has combed through thousands of research articles published in reputable journals. To help you make educated decisions, and to better understand controversial or confusing supplements, our medical experts have digested the science into these three easy-to-follow ratings. We hope this provides you with a helpful resource to make informed decisions towards your health and well-being.
3 Stars Reliable and relatively consistent scientific data showing a substantial health benefit.
2 Stars Contradictory, insufficient, or preliminary studies suggesting a health benefit or minimal health benefit.
1 Star For an herb, supported by traditional use but minimal or no scientific evidence. For a supplement, little scientific support.
1. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: "Diabetes Public Health Resource." Accessed October 27, 2010: www.cdc.gov/diabetes/news/docs/flu.htm
2. Hyppönen E, Kenward MG, Virtanen SM, et al. Infant feeding, early weight gain, and risk of type 1 diabetes. Diabetes Care1999;22:1961–5.
3. Grimm J-J, Muchnick S. Type I diabetes and marathon running. Diabetes Care 1993;16:1624 [letter].
4. Bell DSH. Exercise for patients with diabetes—benefits, risks, precautions. Postgrad Med 1992;92:183–96 [review].
5. Ligtenberg PC, Blans M, Hoekstra JB, et al. No effect of long-term physical activity on the glycemic control in type 1 diabetes patients: a cross-sectional study. Neth J Med 1999;55:59–63.
6. Franz MJ, Bantle JP, Beebe CA, et al. Evidence-based nutrition principles and recommendations for the treatment and prevention of diabetes and related complications. Diabetes Care 2003;26:S51–S61 [review].
7. Ajani UA, Gaziano JM, Lotufo PA, et al. Alcohol consumption and risk of coronary heart disease by diabetes status. Circulation2000;102:500–5.
8. Franz MJ, Bantle JP, Beebe CA, et al. Evidence-based nutrition principles and recommendations for the treatment and prevention of diabetes and related complications. Diabetes Care 2002;25:148–98 [review].
9. Young RJ, McCulloch DK, Prescott RJ, Clarke PF. Alcohol: another risk factor for diabetic retinopathy? BMJ1984;288:1035.
10. Moss SE, Klein R, Klein BE. The association of alcohol consumption with the incidence and progression of diabetic retinopathy. Ophthalmology1994;101:196–8.
11. Stegmayr B, Lithner F. Tobacco and end stage diabetic nephropathy. BMJ1987;295:581–2.
12. Scala C, LaPorte RE, Dorman JS, et al. Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus mortality—the risk of cigarette smoking. Circulation1990;82:37–43.
13. Rimm EB, Manson JE, Stampfer MJ, et al. Cigarette smoking and the risk of diabetes in women. Am J Public Health 1993;83:211–4.
14. [No authors listed.] Position statement: Tests of glycemia in diabetes. American Diabetes Association. Diabetes Care 2000;23(Suppl 1):S80–2.
15. Goldstein DE, Little RR, Lorenz RA, et al. Tests of glycemia in diabetes. Diabetes Care 1995;18:896–909 [review].
16. Gallichan M. Self monitoring of glucose by people with diabetes: evidence based practice. BMJ1997;314:964–7 [review].
17. Steel LG. Identifying technique errors. Self-monitoring of blood glucose in the home setting. J Gerontol Nurs 1994;20:9–12.
18. Foster SA, Goode JV, Small RE. Home blood glucose monitoring. Ann Pharmacother 1999;33:355–63 [review].
19. Abuaisha BB, Costanzi JB, Boulton AJ. Acupuncture for the treatment of chronic painful peripheral diabetic neuropathy: a long-term study. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 1998;39:115–21.
20. Zheg HT, Huang XM, Sun JH. Treatment of diabetic cystopathy by acupuncture and moxibustion. J Tradit Chin Med 1986;6:243–8.
21. Zhang W. Acupuncture for treatment of diabetic urinary bladder neural dysfunction—a report of 36 cases. J Tradit Chin Med 1997;17:211–3.
22. Donaghue KC, Pena MM, Chan AK, et al. Beneficial effects of increasing monounsaturated fat intake in adolescents with type 1 diabetes. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 2000;48:193–9.
23. Franz MJ, Bantle JP, Beebe CA, et al. Evidence-based nutrition principles and recommendations for the treatment and prevention of diabetes and related complications. Diabetes Care 2002;25:148-98 [review].
24. Lafrance L, Rabasa-Lhoret R, Poisson D, et al. Effects of different glycaemic index foods and dietary fibre intake on glycaemic control in type 1 patients with diabetes on intensive insulin therapy. Diabet Med 1998;15:972–8.
25. Giacco R, Parillo M, Rivellese AA, et al. Long-term dietary treatment with increased amounts of fiber-rich low-glycemic index natural foods improves blood glucose control and reduces the number of hypoglycemic events in type 1 diabetic patients. Diabetes Care 2000;23:1461–6.
26. U.S. Department of Agriculture, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services: Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 2005. Home and Garden Bulletin No. 232, 2005. Available from URL: www.health.gov/dietaryguidelines/dga2005/document.
27. Vuorinen-Markkola H, Sinisalo M, Koivisto VA. Guar gum in insulin-dependent diabetes: effects on glycemic control and serum lipoproteins. Am J Clin Nutr 1992;56:1056–60.
28. Ebeling P, Yki-Jarvinen H, Aro A, et al. Glucose and lipid metabolism and insulin sensitivity in type 1 diabetes: the effect of guar gum. Am J Clin Nutr 1988;48:98–103.
29. Wolever TMS, Brand Miller J. Sugars and blood glucose control. Am J Clin Nutr1995;62:212S–7S [review].
30. Wolever TMS, Brand Miller J. Sugars and blood glucose control. Am J Clin Nutr 1995;62:212S–7S [review].
31. Brand-Miller J, Hayne S, Petocz P, Colagiuri S. Low-glycemic index diets in the management of diabetes: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Diabetes Care 2003;26:2466–8 [review].
32. Franz MJ. The glycemic index: not the most effective nutrition therapy intervention. Diabetes Care 2003;26:2466–8 [review].
33. Colagiuri S, Miller JJ, Edwards RA. Metabolic effects of adding sucrose and aspartame to the diet of subjects with noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Am J Clin Nutr 1989;50:474–8.
34. Abraira C, Derler J. Large variations of sucrose in constant carbohydrate diets in type II diabetes. Am J Med 1988;84:193–200.
35. Loghmani E, Rickard K, Washburne L, et al. Glycemic response to sucrose-containing mixed meals in diets of children with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. J Pediatr1991;119:531–7.
36. American Diabetes Association. Position Statement: nutrition recommendations and principles for people with diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Care 1999;22:S42–5 [review].
37. Brand-Miller J, Foster-Powell K. Diets with a low glycemic index: from theory to practice. Nutr Today 1999;34:64–72 [review].
38. Crane MG, Sample CJ. Regression of diabetic neuropathy with vegan diet. Am J Clin Nutr 1988;48:926 [abstract #P28].
39. Crane MG, Sample C. Regression of diabetic neuropathy with total vegetarian (vegan) diet. J Nutr Med 1994;4:431–9.
40. Cohen D, Dodds R, Viberti G. Effect of protein restriction in insulin dependent diabetics at risk of nephropathy. BMJ1987;294:795–8.
41. Evanoff G, Thompson C, Bretown J, Weinman E. Prolonged dietary protein restriction in diabetic nephropathy. Arch Intern Med 1989;149:1129–33.
42. Gin H, Aparicio M, Potauz L, et al. Low-protein, low-phosphorus diet and tissue insulin sensitivity in insulin-dependent diabetic patients with chronic renal failure. Nephron1991;57:411–5.
43. Muntoni S, Cocco P, Aru G, Cucca F. Nutritional factors and worldwide incidence of childhood type 1 diabetes. Am J Clin Nutr 2000;71:1525–9.
44. Dahl-Jorgensen K, Joner G, Hanssen KF. Relationship between cows’ milk consumption and incidence of IDDM in childhood. Diabetes Care 1991;14:1081–3.
45. Coleman DL, Kuzava JE, Leiter EH. Effect of diet on incidence of diabetes in nonobese diabetic mice. Diabetes1990;39:432–6.
46. Karajalainen J, Martin JM, Knip M, et al. A bovine albumin peptide as a possible trigger of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. N Engl J Med 1992;327:302–7.
47. Luopajärvi K, Savilahti E, Virtanen SM, et al. Enhanced levels of cow's milk antibodies in infancy in children who develop type 1 diabetes later in childhood. Pediatr Diabetes 2008;9:434–41.
48. Gerstein H. Cow’s milk exposure and type I diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Care 1994;17:13–9.
49. Virtanen SM, Laara E, Hypponen E, et al. Cow’s milk consumption, HLA–DQB1 genotype, and type I diabetes. Diabetes2000;49:912–7.
50. Hypponen E, Kenward MG, Virtanen SM, et al. Infant feeding, early weight gain, and risk of type I diabetes. Diabetes Care 1999;22:1961–5.
51. Verge CF, Howard NJ, Irwig L, et al. Environmental factors in childhood IDDM. A population-based, case-control study. Diabetes Care 1994;17:1381–9.
52. Bodington MJ, McNallyPG, Burden AC. Cow’s milk and type I childhood diabetes: no increase in risk. Diabetes Med 1994;11:663–5.
53. Wadsworth EJ, Shield JP, Hunt LP, Baum JD. A case-control study of environmental factors associated with diabetes in the under 5’s. Diabetes Med 1997;14:390–6.
54. Dahlquist G, Blom L, Lonnberg G. The Swedish Childhood Diabetes Study—a multivariate analysis of risk determinants for diabetes in different age groups. Diabetologia1991;34:757–62.
55. Elliott RB, Harris DP, Hill JP, et al. Type I (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus and cow milk: casein variant consumption. Diabetologia1999;42:292–6.
56. Scott FWE, Norris JM, Kolb H. Milk and type I diabetes. Diabetes Care 1996;19:379–83 [review].
57. Atkinson MA, Bowman MA, Kao K-J, et al. Lack of immune responsiveness to bovine serum albumin in insulin-dependent diabetes. N Engl J Med 1993;329:1853–8.
58. Gerstein H. Cow’s milk exposure and type I diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Care 1994;17:13–9.
59. Akerblom HK, Knip M. Putative environmental factors in Type 1 diabetes. Diabetes Metab Rev 1998;14:31–67 [review].
60. Hyppönen E, Kenward MG, Virtanen SM, et al. Infant feeding, early weight gain, and risk of type 1 diabetes. Diabetes Care 1999;22:1961–5.
61. Pettit DJ, Forman MR, Hanson RL, et al. Breast feeding and incidence of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in Pima Indians. Lancet1997;350:166–8.
62. Ruhnau KJ, Meissner HP, Finn JR, et al. Effects of 3-week oral treatment with the antioxidant thioctic acid (alpha-lipoic acid) in symptomatic diabetic polyneuropathy. Diabet Med 1999;16:1040–3.
63. Ruhnau KJ, Meissner HP, Finn JR, et al. Effects of 3-week oral treatment with the antioxidant thioctic acid (alpha-lipoic acid) in symptomatic diabetic polyneuropathy. Diabet Med 1999;16:1040–3.
64. Reljanovic M, Reichel G, Rett K, et al. Treatment of diabetic polyneuropathy with the antioxidant thioctic acid (alpha-lipoic acid): a two year multicenter randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial (ALADIN II). Alpha Lipoic Acid in Diabetic Neuropathy. Free Radic Res 1999;31:171–9.
65. Ziegler D, Hanefeld M, Ruhnau KJ, et al. Treatment of symptomatic diabetic polyneuropathy with the antioxidant alpha-lipoic acid: a 7-month multicenter randomized controlled trial (ALADIN III Study). ALADIN III Study Group. Alpha-Lipoic Acid in Diabetic Neuropathy. Diabetes Care 1999;22:1296–301.
66. Morcos M, Borcea V, Isermann B, et al. Effect of alpha-lipoic acid on the progression of endothelial cell damage and albuminuria in patients with diabetes mellitus: an exploratory study. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 2001;52:175–83.
67. [No authors listed.] Treatment of painful diabetic neuropathy with topical capsaicin. A multicenter, double-blind, vehicle-controlled study. The Capsaicin Study Group. Arch Intern Med 1991;151:2225–9.
68. [No authors listed.] Effect of treatment with capsaicin on daily activities of patients with painful diabetic neuropathy. Capsaicin Study Group. Diabetes Care 1992;15:159–65.
69. Lee NA, Reasner CA. Beneficial effect of chromium supplementation on serum triglyceride levels in NIDDM. Diabetes Care 1994;17:1449–52.
70. Hermann J, Chung H, Arquitt A, et al. Effects of chromium or copper supplementation on plasma lipids, plasma glucose and serum insulin in adults over age fifty. J Nutr Elderly 1998;18:27–45.
71. Vuorinen-Markkola H, Sinisalo M, Koivisto VA. Guar gum in insulin-dependent diabetes: effects on glycemic control and serum lipoproteins. Am J Clin Nutr 1992;56:1056–60.
72. Ebeling P, Yki-Jarvinen H, Aro A, et al. Glucose and lipid metabolism and insulin sensitivity in type 1 diabetes: the effect of guar gum. Am J Clin Nutr 1988;48:98–103.
73. De Leeuw I, Engelen W, Aerts P, Schrans S. Effect of intensive magnesium supplementation on the in vitro oxidizability of LDL and VLDL in Mg-depleted type 1 diabetic patients. Magnes Res 1998;11:179–82.
74. Sjorgren A, Floren CH, Nilsson A. Oral administration of magnesium hydroxide to subjects with insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. Magnesium1988;121:16–20.
75. McNair P, Christiansen C, Madsbad S, et al. Hypomagnesemia, a risk factor in diabetic retinopathy. Diabetes1978;27:1075–7.
76. Mimouni F, Miodovnik M, Tsang RC, et al. Decreased maternal serum magnesium concentration and adverse fetal outcome in insulin-dependent diabetic women. Obstet Gynecol 1987;70:85–9.
77. American Diabetes Association. Magnesium supplementation in the treatment of diabetes. Diabetes Care 1992;15:1065–7.
78. Sima AA, Calvani M, Mehra M, Amato A. Acetyl-L-carnitine improves pain, nerve regeneration, and vibratory perception in patients with chronic diabetic neuropathy: an analysis of two randomized placebo-controlled trials.Diabetes Care 2005;28:89–94.
79. Coggeshall JC, Heggers JP, Robson MC, Baker H. Biotin status and plasma glucose in diabetics. Ann NY Acad Sci 1985;447:389–92.
80. Koutsikos D, Agroyannis B, Tzanatos-Exarchou H. Biotin for diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Biomed Pharmacother 1990;44:511–4.
81. [No authors listed]Gymnema sylvestre. Altern Med Rev 1999;4:46–7.
82. Shanmugasundaram ERB, Rajeswari G, Baskaran K, et al. Use of Gymnema sylvestre leaf extract in the control of blood glucose insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. J Ethnopharmacol 1990;30:281–94.
83. Joffe DJ, Freed SH. Effect of extended release gymnema sylvestre leaf extract (Beta Fast GXR) alone or in combination with oral hypoglycemics or insulin regimens for type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Diabetes In: Control Newsletter 2001;76:no page number.
84. Abdel-Aziz MT, Abdou MS, Soliman K, et al. Effect of carnitine on blood lipid pattern in diabetic patients. Nutr Rep Int 1984;29:1071–9.
85. Jain RC, Sachdev KN. A note on hypoglycemic action of onion in diabetes. Curr Med Pract 1971;15:901–2.
86. Mathew PT, Augusti KT. Hypoglycaemic effect of onion, Allium cepa Linn, on diabetes mellitus, a preliminary report. Ind J Physiol Pharmacol1975;19:231–7.
87. Tjokroprawiro A, Pikir BS, Budhiarta AA, et al. Metabolic effects of onion and green beans on diabetic patients. Tohoku J Exp Med 1983;141(suppl):671–6.
88. Sharma KK, Gupta RK, Gupta S, Samuel KC. Antihyperglycemic effect of onion: Effect on fasting blood sugar and induced hyperglycemia in man. Ind J Med Res 1977;65:422–9.
89. Haugen HN. The blood concentration of thiamine in diabetes. Scand J Clin Lab Invest 1964;16:260–6.
90. Abbas ZG, Swai ABM. Evaluation of the efficacy of thiamine and pyridoxine in the treatment of symptomatic diabetic peripheral neuropathy. East African Med J 1997;74:804–8.
91. Stracke H, Lindemann A, Federlin K. A benfotiamine-vitamin B combination in treatment of diabetic polyneuropathy. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes 1996;104:311–6.
92. Molnar GD, Berge KG, Rosevear JW, et al. The effect of nicotinic acid in diabetes mellitus. Metabolism1964;13:181–9.
93. Gaut ZN, Pocelinko R, Solomon HM, Thomas GB. Oral glucose tolerance, plasma insulin, and uric acid excretion in man during chronic administration in nicotinic acid. Metabolism1971;20:1031–5.
94. Clearly JP. Vitamin B3 in the treatment of diabetes mellitus: case reports and review of the literature. J Nutr Med 1990;1:217–25.
95. Lewis CM, Canafax DM, Sprafka JM, Bazrbosa JJ. Double-blind randomized trail of nicotinamide on early-onset diabetes. Diabetes Care 1992;15:121–3.
96. Chase HP, Butler-Simon N, Garg S, et al. A trial of nicotinamide in newly diagnosed patients with type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus. Diabetologia1990;33:444–6.
97. Mendola G, Casamitjana R, Gomis R. Effect of nicotinamide therapy upon B-cell function in newly diagnosed type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetic patients. Diabetologia1989;32:160–2.
98. Pozzilli P, Browne PD, Kolb H. Meta-analysis of nicotinamide treatment in patients with recent-onset type 1. The nicotinamide trialists. Diabetes Care 1996;19:1357–63.
99. Vidal J, Fernandez-Balsells M, Sesmilo G, Aguilera E. Effects of nicotinamide and intravenous insulin therapy in newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes. Diabetes Care 2000;23:360–4.
100. Elliott RB, Picher CC, Fergusson DM, Stewart AW. A population based strategy to prevent insulin-dependent diabetes using nicotinamide. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab 1996;9:501–9.
101. Lampeter EF, Klinghammer A, Scherbaum WA, et al. The Deutsche Nicotinamide Intervention Study. An attempt to prevent type 1 diabetes. Diabetes1998;47:980–4.
102. Visalli N, Cavallo MG, Signore A, et al. A multi-centre randomized trial of two different doses of nicotinamide in patients with recent-onset type 1 diabetes (The IMDIAB VI). Diabetes Metab Res Rev 1999;15:181–5.
103. Haugen HN. The blood concentration of thiamine in diabetes. Scand J Clin Lab Invest 1964;16:260–6.
104. Abbas ZG, Swai ABM. Evaluation of the efficacy of thiamine and pyridoxine in the treatment of symptomatic diabetic peripheral neuropathy. East African Med J 1997;74:804–8.
105. Stracke H, Lindemann A, Federlin K. A benfotiamine-vitamin B combination in treatment of diabetic polyneuropathy. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes 1996;104:311–6.
106. Visalli N, Cavallo MG, Signore A, et al. A multi-centre randomized trial of two different doses of nicotinamide in patients with recent-onset type 1 diabetes (The IMDIAB VI). Diabetes Metab Res Rev 1999;15:181–5.
107. Wilson RG, Davis RE. Serum pyridoxal concentrations in children with diabetes mellitus. Pathology1977;9:95–9.
108. Davis RE, Calder JS, Curnow DH. Serum pyridoxal and folate concentrations in diabetics. Pathology1976;8:151–6.
109. McCann VJ, Davis RE. Serum pyridoxal concentrations in patients with diabetic neuropathy. Aust N Z J Med 1978;8:259–61.
110. Passariello N, Fici F, Giugliano D, et al. Effects of pyridoxine alpha-ketoglutarate on blood glucose and lactate in type I and II diabetics. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther Toxicol1983;21:252–6.
111. Solomon LR, Cohen K. Erythrocyte O2 transport and metabolism and effects of vitamin B6 therapy in type II diabetes mellitus. Diabetes1989;38:881–6.
112. Cunningham JJ, Ellis SL, McVeigh KL, et al. Reduced mononuclear leukocyte ascorbic acid content in adults with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus consuming adequate dietary vitamin C. Metabolism1991;40:146–9.
113. Davie SJ, Gould BJ, Yudkin JS. Effect of vitamin C on glycosylation of proteins. Diabetes1992;41:167–73.
114. Will JC, Tyers T. Does diabetes mellitus increase the requirement for vitamin C? Nutr Rev1996;54:193–202 [review].
115. McAuliffe AV, Brooks BA, Fisher EJ, et al. Administration of ascorbic acid and an aldose reductase inhibitor (tolrestat) in diabetes: effect on urinary albumin excretion. Nephron1998;80:277–84.
116. Branch DR. High-dose vitamin C supplementation increases plasma glucose. Diabetes Care 1999;22:1218 [letter].
117. Mayer-Davis E, Bell RA, Reboussin BA, et al. Antioxidant nutrient intake and diabetic retinopathy. The San Luis Valley Diabetes Study. Ophthalmology1998;105:2264–70.
118. Labriji-Mestaghanmi H, Billaudel B, Garnier PE, Sutter BCJ. Vitamin D and pancreatic islet function. I. Time course for changes in insulin secretion and content during vitamin deprivation and repletion. J Endocrine Invest 1988;11:577–84.
119. Hypponen E, Laara E, Reunanen A, et al. Intake of vitamin D and risk of type 1 diabetes: a birth-cohort study. Lancet2001;358:1500–3.
120. Simpson M, Brady H, Yin X, et al. No association of vitamin D intake or 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels in childhood with risk of islet autoimmunity and type 1 diabetes: the Diabetes Autoimmunity Study in the Young (DAISY). Diabetologia 2011;54:2779–88.
121. Gabbay MAL, Sato MN, Finazzo C, et al. Effect of cholecalciferol as adjunctive therapy with insulin on protective immunologic profile and decline of residual beta-cell function in new-onset type 1 diabetes mellitus. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 2012;166:601–7.
122. Nakamura T, Higashi A, Nishiyama S, et al. Kinetics of zinc status in children with IDDM. Diabetes Care 1991;14:553–7.
123. Mocchegiani E, Boemi M, Fumelli P, Fabris N. Zinc-dependent low thymic hormone level in type I diabetes. Diabetes1989;12:932–7.
124. Rao KVR, Seshiah V, Kumar TV. Effect of zinc sulfate therapy on control and lipids in type I diabetes. J Assoc Physicians India 1987;35:52 [abstract].
125. Cunningham JJ, Fu A, Mearkle PL, Brown RG. Hyperzincuria in individuals with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus: concurrent zinc status and the effect of high-dose zinc supplementation. Metabolism1994;43:1558–62.
126. Maxwell SR, et al. Poor glycaemic control is associated with reduced serum free radical scavenging (antioxidant) activity in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Ann Clin Biochem 1997;34( Pt 6):638–44.
127. Jayaprakasam B, Vareed SK, Olson LK, Nair MG. Insulin secretion by anthocyanins and anthocyanidins. J Agric Food Chem 2005;53:28–31.
128. Boivin M, Zinsmeister AR, Go VL, DiMagno EP. Effect of a purified amylase inhibitor on carbohydrate metabolism after a mixed meal in healthy humans. Mayo Clin Proc 1987;62:249–55.
129. Boivin M, Flourie B, Rizza RA, et al. Gastrointestinal and metabolic effects of amylase inhibition in diabetics. Gastroenterology1988;94:387–94.
130. Lankisch M, Layer P, Rizza RA, DiMagno EP. Acute postprandial gastrointestinal and metabolic effects of wheat amylase inhibitor (WAI) in normal, obese, and diabetic humans. Pancreas1998;17:176–81.
131. Holt PR, Thea D, Yang MY, Kotler DP. Intestinal and metabolic responses to an alpha-glucosidase inhibitor in normal volunteers. Metabolism1988;37:1163–70.
132. Layer P, Rizza RA, Zinsmeister AR, et al. Effect of a purified amylase inhibitor on carbohydrate tolerance in normal subjects and patients with diabetes mellitus. Mayo Clin Proc 1986;61:442–7.
133. Zhang T, Hoshino M, Iguchi K, et al. Ginseng root: Evidence for numerous regulatory peptides and insulinotropic activity. Biomed Res 1990;11:49–54.
134. Suzuki Y, Hikino H. Mechanisms of hypoglycemic activity of panaxans A and B, glycans of Panax ginseng roots: Effects on plasma levels, secretion, sensitivity and binding of insulin in mice. Phytother Res 1989;3:20–4.
135. Waki I, Kyo H, Yasuda M, Kimura M. Effects of a hypoglycemic component of ginseng radix on insulin biosynthesis in normal and diabetic animals. J Pharm Dyn 1982;5:547–54.125.
136. Shigeta Y, Izumi K, Abe H. Effect of coenzyme Q7 treatment on blood sugar and ketone bodies of diabetics.J Vitaminol(Kyoto) 1966;12:293–8.
137. Henriksen JE, Bruun Andersen C, Hother-Nielsen O, et al. Impact of ubiquinone (coenzyme Q10) treatment on glycaemic control, insulin requirement and well-being in patients with Type 1 diabetes mellitus. Diabet Med 1999;16:312–8.
138. Jamal GA, Carmichael H. The effect of gamma-linolenic acid on human diabetic peripheral neuropathy: a double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Diabet Med 1990;7:319–23.
139. Dyer O. GMC reprimands doctor for research fraud. BMJ 2003;326:730.
140. Hannan JM, Rokeya B, Faruque O, et al. Effect of soluble dietary fibre fraction of Trigonella foenum graecum on glycemic, insulinemic, lipidemic and platelet aggregation status of Type 2 diabetic model rats. J Ethnopharmacol2003;88:73–7.
141. Broca C, Manteghetti M, Gross R, et al. 4-Hydroxyisoleucine: effects of synthetic and natural analogues on insulin secretion. Eur J Pharmacol 2000;390:339–45.
142. Puri D, Prabhu KM, Murthy PS. Mechanism of action of a hypoglycemic principle isolated from fenugreek seeds. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol 2002;46:457–62.
143. Sharma RD, Raghuram TC, Rao NS. Effect of fenugreek seeds on blood glucose and serum lipids in type I diabetes. Eur J Clin Nutr 1990;44:301–6.
144. Zak A, Zeman M, Hrabak P, et al. Changes in the glucose tolerance and insulin secretion in hypertriglyceridemia: effects of dietary n-3 fatty acids. Nutr Rep Int 1989;39:235–42.
145. Okuda Y, Mizutani M, Ogawa M, et al. Long-term effects of eicosapentaenoic acid on diabetic peripheral neuropathy and serum lipids in patients with type II diabetes mellitus. J Diabetes Complications 1996;10:280–7.
146. Mori TA, Vandongen R, Masarei JR, et al. Comparison of diets supplemented with fish oil or olive oil on plasma lipoproteins in insulin-dependent diabetics. Metabolism1991;40:241–6.
147. Mori TA, Vandongen R, Masarei JR. Fish oil-induced changes in apolipoproteins in IDDM subjects. Diabetes Care 1990;13:725–32.
148. Koltringer P, Langsteger W, Lind P, et al. [Ginkgo biloba extract and folic acid in the therapy of changes caused by autonomic neuropathy]. Acta Med Austriaca 1989;16:35–7 [in German].
149. Doi K. Effect of konjac fibre (glucomannan) on glucose and lipids. Eur J Clin Nutr 1995;49(3 Suppl):190S–197S [review].
150. Alam MM, Siddiqui MB, Hussain W. Treatment of diabetes through herbal drugs in rural India. Fitoterapia1990;61:240–2.
151. Sachdewa A, Khemani LD. Effect of Hibiscus rosa sinensis Linn ethanol flower extract on blood glucose and lipid profile in streptozotocin induced diabetes in rats. J Ethnopharmacol2003;89:61–6.
152. Salway JG, Whitehead L, Finnegan JA, et al. Effect of myo-inositol on peripheral-nerve function in diabetes. Lancet1978;2:1282–4.
153. Gregersen G, Borsting H, Theil P, Servo C. Myoinositol and function of peripheral nerves in human diabetics. Acta Neurol Scand 1978;58:241–8.
154. Kosenko LG. Concentration of trace elements in the blood of patients with diabetes mellitus. Fed Proc Transl (Suppl) 1965;24:237–8.
155. Baly DL, Schneiderman JS, Garcia-Welsh AL. Effect of manganese deficiency on insulin binding, glucose transport and metabolism in rat adipocytes. J Nutr 1990;120:1075–9.
156. Rubenstein AH, Levin NW, Elliott GA. Hypoglycaemia induced by manganese. Nature(London) 1962;194:188–9.
157. Gray AM, Flatt PR. Insulin-secreting activity of the traditional antidiabetic plant Viscum album (mistletoe). J Endocrinol 1999;160:409–14.
158. Swanson-Flatt SK, Day C, Bailey CJ, Flatt PR. Evaluation of traditional plant treatments for diabetes: Studies in streptozotocin-diabetic mice. Acta Diabetologica Latina 1989;26:51–5.
159. Peirce A. Practical Guide to Natural Medicines. New York: William Morrow and Co., 1999, 469–71.
160. Gaby A. Preventing complications of diabetes T ownsend Letter 1985;32:307 [editorial].
161. Van der Hem LG, van der Vliet JA, Bocken CF, et al. Ling Zhi-8: studies of a new immunomodulating agent. Transplantation1995;60:438–43.
162. Jones K. Reishi mushroom: Ancient medicine in modern times. Alt Compl Ther 1998;4:256–66 [review].
163. Cao Q, Qu W, Deng Y, et al. Effect of flavonoids from the seed and fruit residue of Hippophaerhamnoides L. on glycometabolism in mice. Zhong Yao Cai2003;26:735-7 [In Chinese].
164. Wang J, Zhang W, Zhu D, et al. Hypolipidaemic and hypoglycaemic effects of total flavonoids from seed residues of Hippophaerhamnoides L. in mice fed a high-fat diet J Sci Food Agric 2011;91:1446-51.
165. Nemes-Nagy E, Szocs-Molnár T, Dunca I, et al. Effect of a dietary supplement containing blueberry and sea buckthorn concentrate on antioxidant capacity in type 1 diabetic children. ActaPhysiologicaHungarica 2008; 95: 383–393.
166. Crary EJ, McCarty MF. Potential clinical applications for high-dose nutritional antioxidants. Med Hypotheses 1984;13:77–98.
167. Crary EJ, McCarty MF. Potential clinical applications for high-dose nutritional antioxidants. Med Hypotheses 1984;13:77–98.
168. Franconi F, Bennardini F, Mattana A, et al. Plasma and platelet taurine are reduced in subjects with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus: effects of taurine supplementation. Am J Clin Nutr 1995;61:1115–9.
Last Review: 10-16-2013
Copyright © 2013 Aisle7. All rights reserved. Aisle7.com
The information presented in Aisle7 is for informational purposes only. It is based on scientific studies (human, animal, or in vitro), clinical experience, or traditional usage as cited in each article. The results reported may not necessarily occur in all individuals. Self-treatment is not recommended for life-threatening conditions that require medical treatment under a doctor's care. For many of the conditions discussed, treatment with prescription or over the counter medication is also available. Consult your doctor, practitioner, and/or pharmacist for any health problem and before using any supplements or before making any changes in prescribed medications. Information expires June 2014.
Healthwise, Healthwise for every health decision, and the Healthwise logo are trademarks of Healthwise, Incorporated.