Illness & Conditions - Special Health Issues
Provides questions to help you learn why you use tobacco. Discusses the benefits of quitting and offers strategies for quitting. Explains nicotine dependence and offers link to info on nicotine replacement therapy.
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In this topic, you'll find strategies for quitting smoking and staying smoke-free. Find where you want to go now:
Are you ready to quit?
Maybe you have already taken your last puff or are ready to quit today. That's great. This information will help you keep your resolve to kick the habit for good.
Or maybe you want to plan ahead before you quit. How ready are you to quit? To find out, use the Interactive Tool: Are You Ready to Quit Smoking?
It's okay if you aren't ready now. But you may want to quit at some point. So keep learning and preparing yourself. Many smokers do quit. You can too.
Why do you want to quit?
Think about why you want to quit. Maybe you want to protect your heart and your health and live longer. Or maybe you want to be a good role model for your kids or spend your money on something besides cigarettes. Your reason for wanting to change is important. If your reason comes from you—and not someone else—it will be easier for you to try to quit for good.
Find out how smoking can affect you:
How can you quit?
Quitting smoking is hard. Some people who have quit say that it was the hardest thing they have ever done. But most smokers eventually are able to quit smoking. And you don't have to do it alone. Ask your family, friends, and doctor to help you. Get what you need to help you quit for good.
After you quit, try not to smoke at all—not even one puff. Prevent a slip (smoking one or two cigarettes) or relapse (returning to regular smoking) by avoiding smoking triggers, at least at first. These triggers can include friends who smoke, alcohol, and stress. Don't keep cigarettes in your house or car. If you do slip, stay calm. Remind yourself that you have a plan, and think about how hard you've worked to quit for good.
Why is it so hard to quit?
Quitting is hard because your body depends on the nicotine in tobacco. Giving it up is more than just kicking a bad habit. Your body has to stop craving the nicotine . Nicotine gum, lozenges, patches, and other medicines can help reduce the cravings without the harmful effects of smoking.
You also have to change your habits. You may not even think about smoking. You just do it. You may not realize it, but seeing someone smoke—or just seeing cigarettes—may cause you to want to smoke. You may smoke when you drink alcohol or when you are stressed. Or maybe you have a cigarette with coffee. Before you quit, think of new ways to handle these things. For example, call a friend or practice deep breathing when you feel stressed. Try chewing sugarless gum instead of smoking. Go for a walk when you have a break at work. When you first start your quit, it's okay to stay around nonsmokers. And it's okay to avoid situations where you may be tempted to smoke (like occasions where alcohol will be served) until you feel more confident about staying smoke-free.
What if you feel bad when you are trying to quit?
You are likely to crave cigarettes and to have withdrawal symptoms. You may feel grouchy or restless or you may have a hard time concentrating for the first 2 to 3 weeks after you quit. It may be hard to focus on tasks. Or you may have trouble sleeping and want to eat more. But you won't feel bad forever, and medicine can help. Using medicines and products like nicotine gum or patches can help with cravings and make it easier to resist smoking.
Will you gain weight?
You may worry about gaining weight after you stop smoking. This is understandable. In fact, many smokers do gain weight during their quit attempt. In your plan to quit smoking, include eating healthy snacks and doing some physical activity to help you avoid weight gain during your quit.
If you do gain weight, you can focus on losing it after you have successfully quit smoking. Be patient with yourself and try to tackle one change at a time.
You can take steps to lower your chance of gaining weight:
Use quit-smoking medicines or nicotine replacement. They may make gaining weight less likely while you are quitting smoking.
What if you start smoking again?
Most people quit and restart many times before they stop smoking for good. If you start smoking again after you quit, don't give up. If you return to smoking, but smoke less than before, try to keep your smoking at that lower level so it will be easier to quit in the future. Also, if you are ready to try to quit again soon, do so. You do not need to wait to try again. Each time you quit, even if it is just for a short time, you get closer to your long-term goal.
Remind yourself that by quitting you may avoid serious health problems and live longer. Remember your reasons for quitting. Maybe you want to protect your heart and your health and live longer.
Each time you quit, you learn more about what helps and what gets in the way. Think about why you started smoking again and about what you will do differently next time. If you tried to quit without medicines or counseling, think about trying them next time. If you did use a medicine and counseling, think about trying a different type next time. Medicines and nicotine replacement (gum, patches, lozenges) can double your chances of success. 1 And using medicines and counseling is even more effective. You can do it!
Frequently Asked Questions
Health Tools help you make wise health decisions or take action to improve your health.
Why Do You Smoke?
Most people don't think about when or why they smoke. They just do it. But knowing when and why you smoke can help you choose the quitting strategy that is most likely to work. Perhaps you smoke:
For parents: Why children and teens smoke
Many children and teens use cigarettes, cigars, and smokeless tobacco because their friends do. Movies and TV shows can make smoking seem attractive. Teens, especially girls, often use smoking to try to control their weight.
Teens may think that smoking is a way to look more mature, independent, and self-confident to their peers. They may smoke to rebel against their parents. But most teens do not know how addictive cigarettes are. If your child smokes, it might help to talk with him or her about some of the reasons to stop smoking. If you smoke or have quit, talk with your teen about how you regret starting and how hard it can be to quit.
You may not think so, but children and teens are influenced by their parents. They are especially likely to smoke if their parents smoke. And they are more likely to quit if their parents quit. And if your child never smokes during the teen years, he or she is less likely to start smoking in the future.
Thinking About Quitting?
When you're craving tobacco, it's hard to focus on quitting. Preparing yourself before you quit can help. Before you quit, get ready for a life without nicotine.
Think about your reasons for quitting
Staying healthy is a common reason to want to quit smoking. Or maybe you want to feel more in control of your life, instead of feeling controlled by tobacco. Teens may have other reasons to quit smoking.
Talk to your family and friends about quitting. Their support might help you decide to quit.
Know the risks of smoking
What worries you about smoking? Make a list. Talk about it with your doctor. You may worry about:
Did you know that most all of the health risks of smoking go away if you quit?
Look forward to the rewards
What do you gain by quitting? You can:
Prepare for roadblocks
Quitting smoking when you have other health problems
If you have depression or anxiety, talk to your doctor before you quit smoking. He or she may have helpful ideas on which medicines may work best for you to quit smoking.
Smoking can also affect the level of certain medicines in your blood. If you take medicines for a health problem, talk with your doctor before you quit smoking to see whether you should change the dose of any of your medicines.
Planning Your Strategy to Quit
Learn what works for you.
When it comes to quitting smoking, some people find it helpful to plan ahead. Others don't. Do what works for you. If you are ready to quit right now, see the section Ready to Quit Today?
If you prefer to plan ahead, start by asking yourself some questions. Are you a goal-setter? How confident do you feel that you will succeed at giving up smoking? Asking yourself these questions is one way to prepare yourself for quitting.
Know your reasons
Your reason for wanting to quit is important. Maybe you want to protect your heart and your health and live longer. Or maybe you want to spend your money on something besides cigarettes. If your reason comes from you—and not someone else—it will be easier for you to try to quit for good.
After you know your reasons for wanting to quit, use the U.S. Surgeon General's five keys to quitting: get ready, get support, learn new skills and behaviors, get and use medicine, and be prepared for relapse.
1. Get ready
Contact your doctor or local health department to learn about medicines and to find out what kinds of help are available in your area for people who want to quit smoking. Telephone helplines operated by your state can also help you find information and support for quitting smoking.
Check with your insurance provider to find out if medicines and counseling are covered under your health plan. Your employer may also help pay the cost of a quit-smoking program or provide help to pay for medicines, even over-the-counter ones.
Free smartphone and tablet apps may be another helpful way to plan your quit. Apps such as the National Cancer Institute's QuitPal can help you set goals, track your progress, and share your struggles and successes with family and friends. QuitPal can also support you with text reminders.
Here are some other ways to get ready to quit smoking:
2. Get support
You will have a better chance of quitting successfully if you have help and support from your family, friends, and coworkers. Others sources of support include:
If a partner or friend is quitting, you can help.
3. Learn new skills and behaviors
Since you won't be smoking, decide what you are going to do instead. Make a plan to:
4. Get and use medicine
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved several medicines to help people quit smoking. You will double your chances of quitting even if medicine is the only treatment you use to quit. Your odds get even better when you combine medicine and other quit strategies, such as counseling. 1
You won't have to take medicines forever—just for as long as it takes to help you quit. Your employer or health plan may help pay the cost of a quit-smoking program or provide help to pay for medicines. And remember that no matter how much it costs to buy medicines to help you stop smoking, it's still less than the cost of smoking.
The first-choice medicines are: 2
Remember, taking medicines and using telephone or in-person counseling or a quit-smoking program at the same time greatly increases your chances of success.
5. Be prepared for relapse
Most people are not successful the first few times they try to quit smoking. If you start smoking again, don't feel bad about yourself. A slip or relapse is just a sign that you need to change your approach to quitting.
A slip of just one or two cigarettes can lead back to regular smoking, but many smokers can get back to not smoking by changing their plan. For example, they may add counseling or a medicine. Or they may talk to a friend who used to smoke. Make a list of things you learned. And think about when you want to try again, such as next week, next month, or next spring. Or you don't have to wait. If you're still motivated to quit, you can try again as soon as you want.
You might get some ideas for things you can do differently by looking at "Prepare for roadblocks" in the Thinking About Quitting? section. Maybe you can try something new next time, such as a new medicine or type of counseling. You might try combining tools, such as counseling and medicine. Keep trying, and don't be fooled into thinking that smoking "light" cigarettes will help. They do not make smoking safer.
If you slip
If you slip or smoke a little, don't give up. Talk to someone who has quit smoking, or to a counselor, to get ideas of what to do. If you are taking medicine or using nicotine replacement, keep doing so unless you go back to regular smoking.
Quitting smoking is hard, but it can be done. To stay motivated, keep reminding yourself why you want to quit smoking. Make a list of your reasons to quit and the benefits you expect from quitting. Put your list of reasons on your bedroom dresser, in your wallet, or on the refrigerator. Review it whenever you are struggling with the quitting process. Add to your list whenever another reason or benefit occurs to you.
See the topic Quick Tips: What to Do When You Crave Nicotine.
If you have tried to quit smoking before, remember that most people try to quit many times before they are successful. Don't give up.
Ready to Quit Today?
Congratulations! You are taking a big step. You are ready to quit today. It's exciting. But it can also be scary. If you're not quite ready yet, but you think you will be soon, see the section Thinking About Quitting?
If you've been planning to quit, you may already know that when you stop smoking, you may not feel so great at first. Some people feel grouchy and have cravings. The good news is that these things are at their worst in the first 2 to 3 days. They can last 2 to 3 weeks after you quit, or maybe longer. And there are things that can help.
If you decided to quit today but haven't planned ahead, don't worry. Here are some things to consider to help you succeed:
Using nicotine replacement products and/or medicine doubles your chances of quitting. 1 When you quit smoking, your body craves the nicotine that it was used to getting when you smoked. But the nicotine isn't the harmful part of smoking or chewing. It's all the other things in tobacco that are bad for you, such as tar and carbon monoxide. Nicotine from medicine is absorbed so slowly and at such low levels that it is rarely addictive.
Support can help you through the stress of losing this part of your life. Your doctor can prescribe medicines that can get you through withdrawal. And he or she can help you plan the best way to use nicotine replacement products and can refer you to counseling programs. Friends and family (especially those who used to smoke) can provide shoulders to lean on, and they can encourage you to stay smoke-free. They can help distract you when you want to smoke, and they can understand when you're a bit grouchy.
People who use telephone, group, one-on-one, or Internet counseling are much more likely to stop smoking. Experienced counselors have practical ideas that can help you succeed. Here are some ways to get support:
Make a plan
If you quit today but haven't planned ahead, now is a good time to plan your quit strategy. Think of problems or barriers you have faced. And think of ways to reward yourself for reaching specific milestones. Write out your personal action plan (What is a PDF document?) .
For more information, see the Planning Your Strategy to Quit section of this topic.
Know your reason
You are taking an important step to improve your life. Make sure that you know your reasons for quitting smoking. The most common reason to quit is to live longer. It's a gift you can give yourself and your family.
Dealing With Relapse
If you slip or smoke a little, don't give up. Talk to someone who has quit smoking, or to a counselor, to get ideas of what to do. A slip can quickly turn into regular smoking, so it's important to do something different soon. If you are taking medicine or using nicotine replacement, keep doing so unless you go back to regular smoking. And consider adding a new treatment, like one-on-one counseling.
You're not alone in going back to smoking. Most people who quit try many times before they quit for good.
Don't feel bad about yourself. A relapse is just a sign that you need to try a different approach to quitting smoking. If you tried to quit without medicines or a program, think about trying them next time. Medicines and nicotine replacement (gum, patches, lozenges) can double your chances of success. 1 And using medicines and counseling is even more effective.
Think about what made you start smoking again. Maybe you couldn't handle the cravings. Or maybe you didn't have enough support from family or friends. Maybe something stressful happened that triggered the urge to smoke, and then you couldn't stop.
To quit smoking, you have to learn how to deal with your cravings and temptations to smoke. But staying smoke-free involves learning how to think and act like a nonsmoker.
Many people who are able to make it through those first tough weeks without smoking run into trouble about 3 to 4 weeks after they quit. Surprisingly, this is just about the time when physical cravings have stopped. And yet—people often go back to smoking. Why does this happen? Some researchers found that staying smoke-free may depend on how well someone has been able to start seeing himself or herself as a nonsmoker. 3 To help you start seeing yourself as a nonsmoker, think about hanging out with other nonsmokers, starting a healthy behavior such as going to an exercise class or a healthy-cooking class, or trying any other activity that is not compatible with thinking of yourself as a smoker.
Tips to deal with cravings in the first few weeks
Many of the changes you feel when you first quit smoking don't feel good. Nicotine withdrawal can make you feel grouchy, hungry, and nervous. You may have trouble sleeping or concentrating. These symptoms can last for a few days to several weeks. But they do go away, especially if you take medicine. You may struggle with changing your smoking habits and rituals. This is a lot to deal with, but keep at it. You will feel better.
The following tips may help you in the first few weeks:
Tips to stay smoke-free over time
To stay smoke-free, you will have to make it past a second big challenge. This will come about 3 to 4 weeks after you quit, when you notice that your physical cravings are almost gone. Making it past this second big challenge will depend on how well you have been able to start thinking and acting like a nonsmoker. You will be able to enjoy and value a smoke-free lifestyle when you: 3
There are many ways you can make positive changes in your life, such as starting an exercise program or learning how to manage stress.
If you're reading this, you may be thinking about quitting smoking or making a plan to quit. Or maybe you have already tried to quit a few times. You probably already know that smoking is bad for your health and that quitting will reduce your risk of getting a disease related to smoking, such as heart or lung disease.
If you continue to smoke, there is a 1 out of 2 chance that you will die earlier because of smoking. Smokers, on average, die 13 to 14 years sooner than people like them who are not smokers. 4 If you quit, most of your risk for having a heart attack or getting cancer goes away. The sooner you quit, the more you reduce your risks.
Everyone who uses tobacco would benefit from quitting. When you quit smoking—no matter how old you are—you will decrease your risk of:
In addition to reducing your risk of diseases in the future, you will notice some benefits right away after you stop smoking. Your shortness of breath, energy, and asthma symptoms will likely get better within the first 2 to 4 weeks after you quit. (But don't be surprised if you cough more in the first week after you quit, as your lungs try to clear themselves.)
There are other benefits to quitting:
Natural, low-tar, and low-nicotine "light" cigarettes are not any safer to smoke than regular cigarettes. Do not be misled into thinking that these products are any better for you. They are not.
Why quit using cigars, pipes, or chewing tobacco?
You can get cancers of the throat and mouth from using cigars, pipes, or chewing tobacco.
For teens: Why quit now?
Avoiding diseases caused by smoking and being in control of your life are good reasons for teens to quit.
If you are a teen and you smoke, chew tobacco, or use snuff, you probably already know that tobacco is bad for you. If you are like most teens, you intend to quit at some point, but you may not feel it's very important to quit now. But the longer you use tobacco, the greater your risk for becoming addicted to it. After you're hooked, it's even harder to quit.
Other Places To Get Help
Last Revised: August 15, 2013
Stead LF, et al. (2012). Nicotine replacement therapy for smoking cessation. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (11).
Fiore MC, et al. (2000). Clinical Practice Guideline: Treating Tobacco Use and Dependence. Rockville, MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Also available online: http://www.surgeongeneral.gov/tobacco/treating_tobacco_use.pdf.
Segan CJ, et al. (2006). The challenge of embracing a smoke-free lifestyle: A neglected area in smoking cessation programs. Health Education Research, 23(1).
American Cancer Society (2013). Guide to quitting smoking. Available online: http://www.cancer.org/healthy/stayawayfromtobacco/guidetoquittingsmoking/index.
Sunday SR, Folan P (2004). Smoking in adolescence: What a clinician can do to help. In VC Reichert et al., eds, Medical Clinics of North America, 88(6): 1495–1515. Philadelphia: Saunders.
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